Safety Issues https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation Safety Issues for Center for Consumer Research en Is Irradiated Food Safe? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/irradiated-food-safe <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Is Irradiated Food Safe?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Irradiated food can safely be consumed by anyone. In fact, irradiated poultry, meat and seafood (where approved) are recommended because of greater safety. Scientists acknowledge that nothing can be proven safe, rather, scientists develop scenarios to test safety. Irradiated food has been fed to multiple generations of laboratory animals and to human volunteers with no ill effects. Respected national and international organizations, such as the American Medical Association and the World Health Organization, endorse the safety of irradiated foods. Some health professionals recommend irradiated foods for people who want the safest food. Scientists from the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as from many universities reviewed several hundred studies on the effects of food irradiation before concluding that irradiated foods are safe. This summarizes some of the studies when irradiated food was consumed by a variety of subjects. No ill effects were observed. Like other methods of processing, food irradiation causes small chemical changes which produce new substances called radiolytic products. These are measured in parts per billion and can only be detected with sensitive laboratory equipment. They are identical or similar to substances that occur naturally in food that is not irradiated and have been shown to be harmless in the amounts produced. &quot;Free radicals,&quot; are atoms or molecules that are unstable and very reactive. They can be formed during irradiation, and also by toasting, frying, and freeze-drying. The free radicals formed during irradiation quickly change into other, more stable chemicals. These also are considered harmless, based upon animal and human studies. Despite extensive research, there is no evidence that irradiated foods present any increased risk of exposure to harmful substances over conventionally processed foods. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Irradiated food can safely be consumed by anyone. In fact, irradiated poultry, meat and seafood (where approved) are recommended because of greater safety." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><img alt="Study brief" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="73a9ebe1-cb2b-4eec-a394-4f34b5efbcc3" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/study1.jpg" class="align-right" />Irradiated food can safely be consumed by anyone. In fact, irradiated poultry, meat and seafood (where approved) are recommended because of greater safety.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Scientists acknowledge that nothing can be proven safe, rather, scientists develop scenarios to test safety. Irradiated food has been fed to multiple generations of laboratory animals and to human volunteers with no ill effects. Respected national and international organizations, such as the American Medical Association and the World Health Organization, endorse the safety of irradiated foods. Some health professionals recommend irradiated foods for people who want the safest food.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><img alt="Study brief" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d92351d9-e2e1-43b4-b846-d05eeb51bb6e" height="194" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/study2.jpg" width="326" class="align-right" />Scientists from the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as from many universities reviewed several hundred studies on the effects of food irradiation before concluding that irradiated foods are safe. This summarizes some of the studies when irradiated food was consumed by a variety of subjects. No ill effects were observed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p>Like other methods of processing, food irradiation causes small chemical changes which produce new substances called radiolytic products. These are measured in parts per billion and can only be detected with sensitive laboratory equipment. They are identical or similar to substances that occur naturally in food that is not irradiated and have been shown to be harmless in the amounts produced.</p> <p>"Free radicals," are atoms or molecules that are unstable and very reactive. They can be formed during irradiation, and also by toasting, frying, and freeze-drying. The free radicals formed during irradiation quickly change into other, more stable chemicals. These also are considered harmless, based upon animal and human studies.</p> <p>Despite extensive research, there is no evidence that irradiated foods present any increased risk of exposure to harmful substances over conventionally processed foods.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:30:17 +0000 Anonymous 146 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu How is Safety Tested? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/how-safety-tested <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How is Safety Tested?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken place since the early 1950&#039;s. Irradiated foods have been fed to several species of animals, some up to 40 generations, and people have eaten irradiated foods as part of their total diet. Additionally irradiated foods have been evaluated chemically. Studies have consistently shown no increase in cancer, birth defects or any other negative effect. FDA must approve any use of irradiation on food and USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) must approve the process and the facility if meat or poultry products are involved. USDA&#039;s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service approves use of irradiation for plant quarantine protection. Several foods have been approved in the United States. The FDA sets the maximum dose permitted on food based on what was petitioned to assure safety. The USDA sets the minimum dose on some foods to assure the desired effect, such as destruction of microorganisms or effect insect quarantine control. Over 41 countries nationwide have approved use of irradiation for over 30 food products. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken place since the early 1950&#039;s. Irradiated foods have been fed to several species of animals, some up to 40 generations, and people have eaten irradiated foods as part of their total diet. Additionally irradiated foods have been evaluated chemically. Studies have consistently shown no increase in cancer, birth defects or any other negative effect." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken place since the early 1950's. Irradiated foods have been fed to several species of animals, some up to 40 generations, and people have eaten irradiated foods as part of their total diet. Additionally irradiated foods have been evaluated chemically. Studies have consistently shown no increase in cancer, birth defects or any other negative effect.</p> <p>FDA must approve any use of irradiation on food and USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) must approve the process and the facility if meat or poultry products are involved. USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service approves use of irradiation for plant quarantine protection.</p> <p>Several foods have been approved in the United States. The FDA sets the maximum dose permitted on food based on what was petitioned to assure safety. The USDA sets the minimum dose on some foods to assure the desired effect, such as destruction of microorganisms or effect insect quarantine control.</p> <p>Over 41 countries nationwide have approved use of irradiation for over 30 food products.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:29:45 +0000 Anonymous 141 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Does Nutritional Value Change After Irradiation? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/does-nutritional-value-change-after-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Does Nutritional Value Change After Irradiation?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Nutritional studies have shown that low-dose food irradiation does not cause significant changes in nutritional value. Even at the higher doses of irradiation used to extend shelf-life or control harmful bacteria, nutritional losses are less than, or about the same as cooking and freezing. At lower doses, nutrient losses are either not measurable or insignificant. Any change in nutritional value caused by irradiation depends on a number of factors, including the radiation dose, the type of food, packaging and processing conditions, such as temperature during irradiation and storage time. All forms of food processing--cooking, freezing, canning and even storing foods--lower the amounts of some nutrients. Persons opposed to irradiation may claim high nutrient losses; however they incorrectly refer to studies that expose food to high doses not permitted in the United States or they refer to older studies that failed to accurately measure nutritional value (Diehl, 1990; Thorne, 1991). "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Nutritional studies have shown that low-dose food irradiation does not cause significant changes in nutritional value." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Nutritional studies have shown that low-dose food irradiation does not cause significant changes in nutritional value.</p> <p>Even at the higher doses of irradiation used to extend shelf-life or control harmful bacteria, nutritional losses are less than, or about the same as cooking and freezing. At lower doses, nutrient losses are either not measurable or insignificant. Any change in nutritional value caused by irradiation depends on a number of factors, including the radiation dose, the type of food, packaging and processing conditions, such as temperature during irradiation and storage time. All forms of food processing--cooking, freezing, canning and even storing foods--lower the amounts of some nutrients.</p> <p>Persons opposed to irradiation may claim high nutrient losses; however they incorrectly refer to studies that expose food to high doses not permitted in the United States or they refer to older studies that failed to accurately measure nutritional value (Diehl, 1990; Thorne, 1991).</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:29:13 +0000 Anonymous 136 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Are There Hazards with Food Irradiation? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/news/are-there-hazards-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Are There Hazards with Food Irradiation?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Today&#039;s consumers are increasingly concerned about environmental and worker safety. Since there are about 40 irradiators in the United States and many more world wide, a safety record is readily available. Shipment of cobalt60 and other radioisotopes is governed by stringent rules and regulations. Cobalt60 is sealed in metal rods and must be shipped in reinforced, double encapsulated metal casks. These casks are designed to withstand the most severe accidents, including collisions, punctures and exposure to fire and water depths. Facilities are constructed to standards designed with multiple safeguards to protect worker health and safeguard the community should a natural disaster like an earthquake or tornado occur. In the irradiation process there are no hot fluids generated, no radioactive gases released, no way for the facility to experience a melt down and no way that material could be used to produce nuclear weapons. Facilities following internationally established procedures have never had an accident which endangered the worker or community. The most common source of energy is cobalt60. Cesium137 is used in some facilities, and some use machine generated energy. A U.S. facility using cesium experienced a leak of radioactive material in 1988. This was cleaned with no damage to the surrounding community (WHO, 1991). Because cesium is soluble in water, it is more difficult to contain. Cesium containers have been modified for greater safety and most store in dry enviroments. Use of spent radioactive material has also been addressed.   Cobalt used in food irradiation facilities could be &quot;recycled&quot; from that used to sterilize medical facilities. Food uses require very low energy output and medical facilities require high levels to achieve complete sterility. Only about 10% of cobalt59 is converted to radioactive cobalt60. Instead of storing cobalt60 when the energy rating is low, additional cobalt in the original rod could be converted to cobalt60. This is not done at this time because of technical difficulty, but is theoretically possible. When the useful life of the cobalt is finally over, it is estimated that all the material produced in North America could be stored in a space the size of an office desk. As irradiation processing expands, a range of energy sources may be used depending on the application. The USDA is currently evaluating a 8.5&#039; x 10.5&#039; x 12 unit using cesium137 which can be located at a food processing facility. Called Gray Star, this unit uses recycled cesium137 to destroy pathogens. Because of depth of penetration, machine generated or electron beam sources are a more effective treatment on thin products passing along a conveyer belt where pallet loads of food are processed using cobalt or cesium. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Today&#039;s consumers are increasingly concerned about environmental and worker safety. Since there are about 40 irradiators in the United States and many more world wide, a safety record is readily available. Shipment of cobalt60 and other radioisotopes is governed by stringent rules and regulations. Cobalt60 is sealed in metal rods and must be shipped in reinforced, double encapsulated metal casks. These casks are designed to withstand the most severe accidents, including collisions, punctures and exposure to fire and water depths." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Today's consumers are increasingly concerned about environmental and worker safety. Since there are about 40 irradiators in the United States and many more world wide, a safety record is readily available.</p> <p>Shipment of cobalt60 and other radioisotopes is governed by stringent rules and regulations. Cobalt60 is sealed in metal rods and must be shipped in reinforced, double encapsulated metal casks. These casks are designed to withstand the most severe accidents, including collisions, punctures and exposure to fire and water depths.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="Hazard" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="efda5533-a1f4-4db2-b753-628bacdc494e" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/cont1.jpg" /><img alt="Hazard" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cf490357-d335-4328-b0f7-5968bed42527" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/cont2.jpg" /></p> <p><img alt="Test" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a92a54f9-ff81-44cf-ab08-0cbd4a5dbe13" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/test.jpg" class="align-right" />Facilities are constructed to standards designed with multiple safeguards to protect worker health and safeguard the community should a natural disaster like an earthquake or tornado occur.</p> <p>In the irradiation process there are no hot fluids generated, no radioactive gases released, no way for the facility to experience a melt down and no way that material could be used to produce nuclear weapons.</p> <p>Facilities following internationally established procedures have never had an accident which endangered the worker or community.</p> <p>The most common source of energy is cobalt60. Cesium137 is used in some facilities, and some use machine generated energy. A U.S. facility using cesium experienced a leak of radioactive material in 1988. This was cleaned with no damage to the surrounding community (WHO, 1991). Because cesium is soluble in water, it is more difficult to contain. Cesium containers have been modified for greater safety and most store in dry enviroments.</p> <p><img alt="radio" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d4ad6a8d-fde0-4927-ab18-7fcbf15e68c0" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/radio.gif" class="align-left" />Use of spent radioactive material has also been addressed.</p> <p> </p> <p>Cobalt used in food irradiation facilities could be "recycled" from that used to sterilize medical facilities. Food uses require very low energy output and medical facilities require high levels to achieve complete sterility.</p> <p>Only about 10% of cobalt59 is converted to radioactive cobalt60. Instead of storing cobalt60 when the energy rating is low, additional cobalt in the original rod could be converted to cobalt60. This is not done at this time because of technical difficulty, but is theoretically possible.</p> <p>When the useful life of the cobalt is finally over, it is estimated that all the material produced in North America could be stored in a space the size of an office desk.</p> <p>As irradiation processing expands, a range of energy sources may be used depending on the application. The USDA is currently evaluating a 8.5' x 10.5' x 12 unit using cesium137 which can be located at a food processing facility. Called Gray Star, this unit uses recycled cesium137 to destroy pathogens. Because of depth of penetration, machine generated or electron beam sources are a more effective treatment on thin products passing along a conveyer belt where pallet loads of food are processed using cobalt or cesium.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:24:41 +0000 Anonymous 131 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Are Irradiated Foods Labeled? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/are-irradiated-foods-labeled <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Are Irradiated Foods Labeled?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled &quot;Irradiated&quot; and to bear an international logo, the radura. The petals represent the food, the central circle the radiation source, and the broken circle illustrate the rays from the energy source. For irradiated foods that are not packaged, such as bulk containers of fruit and vegetable, retailers must prominently display the required logo and phrase. Labeling requirements apply only to whole foods that have been irradiated. Foods containing irradiated ingredients such as spices, but which are not themselves irradiated, need not bear a label. Labeling is not required in restaurant foods. Opponents of irradiation in the United States want labeling on restaurant foods. If accompanied by an educational program, most consumers prefer the safety of irradiated foods compared to the increased potential for foodborne illness from non-irradiated food. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled &quot;Irradiated&quot; and to bear an international logo, the radura. The petals represent the food, the central circle the radiation source, and the broken circle illustrate the rays from the energy source." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="Radura Logo" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="071a80d6-8555-48c7-99a5-858e914f20a6" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/radura.gif" class="align-right" />Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled "Irradiated" and to bear an international logo, the radura.</p> <p>The petals represent the food, the central circle the radiation source, and the broken circle illustrate the rays from the energy source.</p> <p><img alt="Strawberries" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d1ae288b-5f3f-4f67-9716-920d79104e69" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/sberry.jpg" class="align-left" />For irradiated foods that are not packaged, such as bulk containers of fruit and vegetable, retailers must prominently display the required logo and phrase. Labeling requirements apply only to whole foods that have been irradiated.</p> <p>Foods containing irradiated ingredients such as spices, but which are not themselves irradiated, need not bear a label.</p> <p>Labeling is not required in restaurant foods. Opponents of irradiation in the United States want labeling on restaurant foods. If accompanied by an educational program, most consumers prefer the safety of irradiated foods compared to the increased potential for foodborne illness from non-irradiated food.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:22:59 +0000 Anonymous 126 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu