Food Irradiation https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation Food Irradiation for Center for Consumer Research en Food Irradiation Facts https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/food-irradiation-facts <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Food Irradiation Facts</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Food irradiation has been identified as a safe technology with numerous advantages for the consumer and the agricultural industry. Irradiation can extend the shelf life of many perishable foods, increase the quality of fruits grown in areas that require insect quarantine measures. The most important advantage is the destruction of microorganisms which could otherwise lead to illness or death. These web pages provide science-based information on this technology and links to other sources of information, both those that support and oppose the use of irradiation. Your comments and questions are welcome. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Food irradiation has been identified as a safe technology with numerous advantages for the consumer and the agricultural industry. Irradiation can extend the shelf life of many perishable foods, increase the quality of fruits grown in areas that require insect quarantine measures. The most important advantage is the destruction of microorganisms which could otherwise lead to illness or death. These web pages provide science-based information on this technology and links to other sources of information, both those that support and oppose the use of irradiation." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Food irradiation has been identified as a safe technology with numerous advantages for the consumer and the agricultural industry.</p> <p>Irradiation can extend the shelf life of many perishable foods, increase the quality of fruits grown in areas that require insect quarantine measures. The most important advantage is the destruction of microorganisms which could otherwise lead to illness or death.</p> <p>These web pages provide science-based information on this technology and links to other sources of information, both those that support and oppose the use of irradiation.</p> <p>Your comments and questions are welcome.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:38:42 +0000 Anonymous 211 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu What's New in Food Irradiation https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/whats-new-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What&#039;s New in Food Irradiation</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Three Electron Beam facilities under construction. An irradiation facility using e-beam technology (see How Irradiation Works) in Sioux City Iowa has been treating frozen beef since May of 2000.  An X-ray facility on the big island of Hawaii treats high quality papaya and other tropical fruit for insect disinfestation prior to shipment to the mainland. An X-ray facility under construction in Russellville, Arkansas adjacent to Zero Mountains cold storage facility. Zero Mountain provides cold storage facilities for more than 30 clients including some of the largest international exporters of poultry and beef. This facility will be used to pasteurize poultry and meat products.  "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Three Electron Beam facilities under construction. An irradiation facility using e-beam technology (see How Irradiation Works) in Sioux City Iowa has been treating frozen beef since May of 2000.  An X-ray facility on the big island of Hawaii treats high quality papaya and other tropical fruit for insect disinfestation prior to shipment to the mainland." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Three Electron Beam facilities under construction.</p> <p>An irradiation facility using e-beam technology (see How Irradiation Works) in Sioux City Iowa has been treating frozen beef since May of 2000.<span> </span></p> <p>An X-ray facility on the big island of Hawaii treats high quality papaya and other tropical fruit for insect disinfestation prior to shipment to the mainland.</p> <p>An X-ray facility under construction in Russellville, Arkansas adjacent to Zero Mountains cold storage facility. Zero Mountain provides cold storage facilities for more than 30 clients including some of the largest international exporters of poultry and beef. This facility will be used to pasteurize poultry and meat products.<span> </span></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:37:31 +0000 Anonymous 206 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Why should I care about irradiated food? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/why-should-i-care-about-irradiated-food <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Why should I care about irradiated food?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Irradiation improves food saftey and quality.  Even though the food supply has achieved a high level of safety, hazards exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated that 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths occur each year due to foodborne illness. Although all are at risk, children, people over age 55, diabetics, and those whose immunity is compromised are especially vulnerable. Irradiation provides protection that is unavailable by any other means against foodborne illness.  Even when meat, poultry, and eggs are prepared with the most advanced sanitation measures possible, harmful bacteria may still be present. Irradiation provides an additional safeguard for the consumer, destroying 99.9 percent or more of E.coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and other harmful bacteria that may be in raw food. Good quality tropical fruits can be shipped to California and other states because irradiation destroys harmful fruit flies, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, before they become an infestation problem. Irradiation increases the shelf life of several fresh foods because it slows the ripening of fruit and prevents potatoes and onions from sprouting. Spices and herbs have been fumigated to increase safety. Irradiation can replace chemical fumigation, producing safe, high quality spices and herbs. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of irradiation to increase the saftey of fresh sprouts because it can destroy harmful bacteria that may be under the sprout seed coat. The FDA may also soon approve irradiation or prepared luncheon meats, and other ready-to-eat foods because the process can increase the safety of such prepackaged, perishable foods. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Irradiation improves food saftey and quality.  Even though the food supply has achieved a high level of safety, hazards exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated that 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths occur each year due to foodborne illness. Although all are at risk, children, people over age 55, diabetics, and those whose immunity is compromised are especially vulnerable. Irradiation provides protection that is unavailable by any other means against foodborne illness. " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><ul><li>Irradiation improves food saftey and quality.<span> </span><br /> Even though the food supply has achieved a high level of safety, hazards exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated that 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths occur each year due to foodborne illness. Although all are at risk, children, people over age 55, diabetics, and those whose immunity is compromised are especially vulnerable.</li> <li>Irradiation provides protection that is unavailable by any other means against foodborne illness.<span> </span><br /> Even when meat, poultry, and eggs are prepared with the most advanced sanitation measures possible, harmful bacteria may still be present. Irradiation provides an additional safeguard for the consumer, destroying 99.9 percent or more of E.coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and other harmful bacteria that may be in raw food.</li> </ul><p class="text-align-center"><img alt="Fruit" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="956e1ead-a220-409e-a5cc-62256ff65f88" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/irrfruit_0.jpg" /><img alt="Chicken cutup" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="26827488-680a-4905-ad6a-1b2861af7a0a" height="223" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/chicken_cutup1.jpg" width="234" /></p> <p>Good quality tropical fruits can be shipped to California and other states because irradiation destroys harmful fruit flies, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, before they become an infestation problem.</p> <p>Irradiation increases the shelf life of several fresh foods because it slows the ripening of fruit and prevents potatoes and onions from sprouting. Spices and herbs have been fumigated to increase safety. Irradiation can replace chemical fumigation, producing safe, high quality spices and herbs.</p> <p>The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of irradiation to increase the saftey of fresh sprouts because it can destroy harmful bacteria that may be under the sprout seed coat. The FDA may also soon approve irradiation or prepared luncheon meats, and other ready-to-eat foods because the process can increase the safety of such prepackaged, perishable foods.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:34:48 +0000 Anonymous 201 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu What Foods Can Be Irradiated? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/what-foods-can-be-irradiated <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What Foods Can Be Irradiated?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description=" Food Dose Permitted (kGy) Purpose of Irradiation Astronaut food 45+ kGy Safety, quality Spices 30 kGy Control illness-causing micro-organisms Red Meat 4.5/7 kGy Control illness-causing micro-organisms Poultry 3 kGy Control illness-causing micro-organisms Shell Eggs 3 kGy Control illness-causing micro-organisms Sprouts seeds 8 kGy Control illness-causing micro-organisms Produce 1 kGy Control illness-causing micro-organisms Any Food 1 kGy Quarantine control FDA Approved Irradiation of Meat for Pathogen Control in 1997. USDA Approved in 1999. The Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of meat products for controlling disease-causing micro-organisms on December 3, 1997. The approval applies to fresh and frozen red meats such as beef, lamb and pork. USDA approved irradiation in December, 1999. &quot;Irradiation of meat could prove to be another important tool to protect consumers from food-borne disease,&quot; said Michael A. Friedman, M.D., Lead Deputy FDA Commissioner. &quot;The process has been shown to be safe and to significantly reduce bacterial contamination.&quot; This approval is based on FDA&#039;s thorough scientific review of a substantial number of studies conducted worldwide on the effects of irradiation on a wide variety of meat products. Approval is based entirely on an evaluation of safety. Potential benefits can not be considered. The safety evaluation included examination of the chemical effects of radiation, impact on nutrient content of irradiated products, potential toxicity concerns, and effects on microorganisms in or on irradiated products. FDA concluded that irradiation is safe in reducing disease-causing microbes in or on meats, and that it does not compromise the nutritional quality of treated products Food products are treated by subjecting them to radiation from radioactive or machine sources. (See How Irradiation Work) Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor does it noticeably change taste, texture, or appearance. Petitions are under FDA review for irradiation of processed meat (hot dogs, luncheon meats, etc.), seafood, and other foods. How people have responded to the FDA approval of meat Realistically, all safety concerns have been answered. Dr. Sherwood Gorbach, Tufts University School of Medicine , and member American Gastroenterological Association Committee on food safety Even if only ground beef was irradiated, it would save lots of lives. Dr. Donald Thayer, USDA, Director of Food Safety This is a victory for consumers and the red meat industry. I know for a fact that there is sincere interest on the part of the meat industry processors, retailers, and food service operators. Patrick Boyle, President and CEO, American Meat Institute The introduction of irradiated meat will be as important to public health as the advent of pasteurized milk and chlorinated water. Dr. Michael T. Osterholm, Minnesota Department of Public Health, Retired Irradiated red meat might cost an extra three to six cents a pound but its shelf life would be extended by about 10 days. Dr. Jim Dixon, Iowa State University, Ames Our feeling is that the industry should clean up its product as much as possible. If that fails to provide safe food, then they certainly should provide irradiation. But irradiation should be a last resort. Dr. Michael Jacobson, Director, Center for Science in the Public Interest Food irradiation is a safe, simple and relatively inexpensive process which has been available since the 1950s to kill harmful pathogens in many foods and to enhance their shelf life. John R. Cady, President, National Food Processors Assn. The decision is good news for consumers. Attention now should be turned to helping consumers understand the benefits of irradiation for themselves and their families. C. Manly Molpus, President, Grocery Manufacturers of America In order to maintain the safest food supply in the world, the beef industry needs the flexibility to use new technologies as they become available. Van Amundson of the National Cattlemen&#039;s Beef Association  "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "The Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of meat products for controlling disease-causing micro-organisms on December 3, 1997. The approval applies to fresh and frozen red meats such as beef, lamb and pork. USDA approved irradiation in December, 1999. " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><table><tbody><tr><td> <p><strong><span>Food</span></strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong><span>Dose Permitted (kGy)</span></strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong><span>Purpose of Irradiation</span></strong></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Astronaut food</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>45+ kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Safety, quality</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Spices</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>30 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Control illness-causing micro-organisms</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Red Meat</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>4.5/7 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Control illness-causing micro-organisms</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Poultry</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>3 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Control illness-causing micro-organisms</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Shell Eggs</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>3 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Control illness-causing micro-organisms</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Sprouts seeds</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>8 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Control illness-causing micro-organisms</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Produce</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>1 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Control illness-causing micro-organisms</span></p> </td> </tr><tr><td> <p><span>Any Food</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>1 kGy</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span>Quarantine control</span></p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p>FDA Approved Irradiation of Meat for Pathogen Control in 1997. USDA Approved in 1999.</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration approved irradiation of meat products for controlling disease-causing micro-organisms on December 3, 1997. The approval applies to fresh and frozen red meats such as beef, lamb and pork. USDA approved irradiation in December, 1999.</p> <p>"Irradiation of meat could prove to be another important tool to protect consumers from food-borne disease," said Michael A. Friedman, M.D., Lead Deputy FDA Commissioner. "The process has been shown to be safe and to significantly reduce bacterial contamination."</p> <p>This approval is based on FDA's thorough scientific review of a substantial number of studies conducted worldwide on the effects of irradiation on a wide variety of meat products. Approval is based entirely on an evaluation of safety. Potential benefits can not be considered. The safety evaluation included examination of the chemical effects of radiation, impact on nutrient content of irradiated products, potential toxicity concerns, and effects on microorganisms in or on irradiated products. FDA concluded that irradiation is safe in reducing disease-causing microbes in or on meats, and that it does not compromise the nutritional quality of treated products</p> <p>Food products are treated by subjecting them to radiation from radioactive or machine sources. (See How Irradiation Work) Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor does it noticeably change taste, texture, or appearance.</p> <p>Petitions are under FDA review for irradiation of processed meat (hot dogs, luncheon meats, etc.), seafood, and other foods.</p> <p>How people have responded to the FDA approval of meat</p> <blockquote> <p>Realistically, all safety concerns have been answered.<span> </span>Dr. Sherwood Gorbach, Tufts University School of Medicine , and member American Gastroenterological Association Committee on food safety</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>Even if only ground beef was irradiated, it would save lots of lives.<span> </span>Dr. Donald Thayer, USDA, Director of Food Safety</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>This is a victory for consumers and the red meat industry. I know for a fact that there is sincere interest on the part of the meat industry processors, retailers, and food service operators.<span> </span>Patrick Boyle, President and CEO, American Meat Institute</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>The introduction of irradiated meat will be as important to public health as the advent of pasteurized milk and chlorinated water.<span> </span>Dr. Michael T. Osterholm, Minnesota Department of Public Health, Retired</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>Irradiated red meat might cost an extra three to six cents a pound but its shelf life would be extended by about 10 days.<span> </span>Dr. Jim Dixon, Iowa State University, Ames</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>Our feeling is that the industry should clean up its product as much as possible. If that fails to provide safe food, then they certainly should provide irradiation. But irradiation should be a last resort.<span> </span>Dr. Michael Jacobson, Director, Center for Science in the Public Interest</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>Food irradiation is a safe, simple and relatively inexpensive process which has been available since the 1950s to kill harmful pathogens in many foods and to enhance their shelf life.<span> </span>John R. Cady, President, National Food Processors Assn.</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>The decision is good news for consumers. Attention now should be turned to helping consumers understand the benefits of irradiation for themselves and their families.<span> </span>C. Manly Molpus, President, Grocery Manufacturers of America</p> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p>In order to maintain the safest food supply in the world, the beef industry needs the flexibility to use new technologies as they become available.<span> </span>Van Amundson of the National Cattlemen's Beef Association<span> </span></p> </blockquote> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:31:38 +0000 Anonymous 196 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu What is Food Irradiation? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/what-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What is Food Irradiation?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="In food irradiation, food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of ionizing radiation. This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified duration of time. With food irradiation, radiant energy (electrons, gamma rays, or x-rays) breaks chemical bonds, just as in cooking, but so few bonds are broken that the food is like fresh. With a low level treatment, the sprouting of foods like onions and potatoes is stopped. With additional treatment insects which would eat fruit or grains are destroyed. A higher treatment acts as a &quot;cold pasteurization&quot; and destroys a significant amount of bacteria that could lead to foodborne disease. Still higher treatment is used to make food &quot;shelf stable,&quot; like canned food, but without the flavor changes characteristic of canned food. Astronauts have eaten shelf stable irradiated foods since the beginning of the space program. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "In food irradiation, food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of ionizing radiation. This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified duration of time. With food irradiation, radiant energy (electrons, gamma rays, or x-rays) breaks chemical bonds, just as in cooking, but so few bonds are broken that the food is like fresh." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="ichamb" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="640a2335-0502-4776-8a01-32d32318814c" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/ichamb.jpg" class="align-right" />In food irradiation, food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of ionizing radiation.</p> <p>This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified duration of time.</p> <p>With food irradiation, radiant energy (electrons, gamma rays, or x-rays) breaks chemical bonds, just as in cooking, but so few bonds are broken that the food is like fresh.</p> <p>With a low level treatment, the sprouting of foods like onions and potatoes is stopped. With additional treatment insects which would eat fruit or grains are destroyed. A higher treatment acts as a "cold pasteurization" and destroys a significant amount of bacteria that could lead to foodborne disease.</p> <p><img alt="Onion pot" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="95ddd793-94d5-4e88-94c9-a79f184addf4" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/onipot_0.jpg" class="align-right" />Still higher treatment is used to make food "shelf stable," like canned food, but without the flavor changes characteristic of canned food. Astronauts have eaten shelf stable irradiated foods since the beginning of the space program.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-food-irradiation" hreflang="en">What is Food Irradiation?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:29:24 +0000 Anonymous 191 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu How does Food Irradiation work? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/how-does-food-irradiation-work <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How does Food Irradiation work?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of intense ionizing radiation. This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified duration. With food irradiation, radiant energy (electrons, gamma rays, or x-rays) breaks chemical bonds, leaving the food still like-fresh, but with specific benefits, depending on treatment level. Irradiation Room: When the cobalt is in the water, people can safely enter the irradiation room. Radiation Source: Cobalt is shielded under water in an underground tank when not in use. Control Console: Treatment is controlled by the speed of the conveyer belt. Amount of energy needed varies by the density of the load. Loading: Packaged food is loaded onto a conveyer belt for treatment. Unloading Processed Product: Treated food can be handled immediately. The fence keeps treated and untreated food separate. Radiation Shield: Concrete walls prevent gamma rays from escaping into the environment. Types of Facilities Cobalt 60, Gamma Facility The most common source of ionizing energy is cobalt 60. This radioactive material is contained in two sealed stainless steel tubes (one inside the other - double encapsulated) called &quot;source pencils.&quot; These are placed in a rack and the entire rack is immersed in a water chamber underground when not in use. When irradiation takes place, the rack is raised. Packaged food products move along the conveyer belt and enter an inner room where they are exposed to the rack containing source pencils. Energy in the form of gamma rays (or photons) pass through the encapsulation and treat the food. Electronic Beam Facility (E-Beam) Click for large pictureThe Electron Beam Linear Accelerator, (E-beam) Accelerators work on the same principle as a television tube. Instead of being widely dispersed and hitting a phosphorescent screen at low energy levels, the electrons are concentrated and accelerated to 99% of the speed of light. This produces rapid reactions on the molecules within the product. The Electron Beam Linear Accelerator machine generates and accelerates electrons to energies of 5,7.5 or 10 MeV (Million electron volts) with beam power of up to 10 kW.   Click for large pictureA Conveyer or cart system moves the product to be irradiated under the electron beam at a predetermined speed to obtain the desired dosage. Products move in and out of the irradiation area continuously. Product thickness depends on density and electron energy. For example, e-beam energy can penetrate meat a total of 3.5 inches with treatment on the top and bottom of a package.   X-Ray Facility Food can also be irradiated by X-rays. In this sytem an electron beam accelerator targets electrons on a metal plate. Some energy is absorbed and the rest is converted to X-rays. Like gamma rays, X-rays can penetrate food boxes up to 15 inches thick or more, thus permitting food to be processed in a shipping container. When food is irradiated, most of the radiation passes through the food without being absorbed. The small amount that is absorbed destroys any insects on grains,produce or spices, extends shelf life, and prevents fruits and vegetables from ripening too fast. Thus, food irradiation may replace chemical fumigants, sprout inhibitors, and post harvest fungicides. Higher doses can kill Salmonella and other harmful bacteria that can contaminate meats and poultry and cause food borne diseases.  Food irradiation is a &quot;cold treatment&quot; that achieves its effects without raising the food&#039;s temperature significantly, leaving the food closer to its original state. Even spices which are treated for 2-4 hours remain essentially at room temperature. By not using high temperatures, food irradiation minimizes nutrient losses and changes in food texture, color, and flavor. The energy used in food irradiation is not great enough to cause food to become radioactive. During irradiation, energy passes through food much like a ray of light passes through a window. This energy destroys most of the bacteria that can cause disease, yet allows food to retain its high quality. Irradiation pasteurizes food by using energy, just as milk is pasteurized using heat. At the level used, most harmful bacteria will be destroyed. Afterwards, surviving bacteria could start to multiply if the food were mishandled: such as, stored at an improper temperature. The level of irradiation used also does not kill certain spoilage organisms. This is for the protection of consumers. Spoilage bacteria will multiply and alert consumers not to use a product which has been improperly handled. As with any food, consumers must take appropriate precautions, such as refrigeration and proper handling and cooking to make sure that potentially harmful organisms do not multiply. Facility Safety Water is used to shield the cobalt when it is not in use. The water is not radioactive. Irradiation facilities must include many safety features to prevent both environmental and worker exposure. The use and transportation of radioactive materials - including the equipment and the facilities in which they are used -- are closely monitored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state agencies, and the Department of Transportation. A food irradiation plant is not a nuclear reactor. In a reactor, a nuclear chain reaction takes place, heat is generated and used to make steam which turns a turbine and creates electricity. Proper controls are needed to contain the chain reaction and maintain proper cooling. A food irradiator is completely different. The effects of treatment by e-beam, cobalt 60, cesium 137 are identical. Use of one method or another is based upon product size, facility size, anticipated throughput, and other factors. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of intense ionizing radiation. This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified duration. With food irradiation, radiant energy (electrons, gamma rays, or x-rays) breaks chemical bonds, leaving the food still like-fresh, but with specific benefits, depending on treatment level." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Food is exposed to a carefully measured amount of intense ionizing radiation. This is done in a special processing room or chamber for a specified duration. With food irradiation, radiant energy (electrons, gamma rays, or x-rays) breaks chemical bonds, leaving the food still like-fresh, but with specific benefits, depending on treatment level.</p> <img alt="IRR machine" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a841d4e1-eeb7-4043-8151-5af49fa508fe" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/irr_machine.jpg" class="align-center" /><ul><li><strong>Irradiation Room</strong>: When the cobalt is in the water, people can safely enter the irradiation room.</li> <li><strong>Radiation Source</strong>: Cobalt is shielded under water in an underground tank when not in use.</li> <li><strong>Control Console</strong>: Treatment is controlled by the speed of the conveyer belt. Amount of energy needed varies by the density of the load.</li> <li><strong>Loading</strong>: Packaged food is loaded onto a conveyer belt for treatment.</li> <li><strong>Unloading Processed Product</strong>: Treated food can be handled immediately. The fence keeps treated and untreated food separate.</li> <li><strong>Radiation Shield</strong>: Concrete walls prevent gamma rays from escaping into the environment.</li> </ul><h3>Types of Facilities</h3> <h4>Cobalt 60, Gamma Facility</h4> <p><img alt="Automatic Pallet Irradiator" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="736911a3-e5fb-41c6-ab1f-cd06d6b80a92" height="152" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/plant.jpg" width="228" class="align-right" />The most common source of ionizing energy is cobalt 60. This radioactive material is contained in two sealed stainless steel tubes (one inside the other - double encapsulated) called "source pencils." These are placed in a rack and the entire rack is immersed in a water chamber underground when not in use. When irradiation takes place, the rack is raised. Packaged food products move along the conveyer belt and enter an inner room where they are exposed to the rack containing source pencils. Energy in the form of gamma rays (or photons) pass through the encapsulation and treat the food.</p> <h4>Electronic Beam Facility (E-Beam)</h4> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"><a href="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/emeat1.jpg"><img alt="E-Beam" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="75b48d7f-ae5d-4547-a435-7dc6a3b0e849" height="198" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/emeat1.jpg" width="227" /></a> <figcaption>Click for large picture</figcaption></figure><p>The Electron Beam Linear Accelerator, (E-beam) Accelerators work on the same principle as a television tube. Instead of being widely dispersed and hitting a phosphorescent screen at low energy levels, the electrons are concentrated and accelerated to 99% of the speed of light. This produces rapid reactions on the molecules within the product. The Electron Beam Linear Accelerator machine generates and accelerates electrons to energies of 5,7.5 or 10 MeV (Million electron volts) with beam power of up to 10 kW.<br />  </p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-left"><a href="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/afacility1.jpg"><img alt="Electronic Pasteurization System" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f6e13c10-2f50-4f86-99bf-8ec4ff3bf31f" height="143" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/afacility1.jpg" width="178" /></a> <figcaption>Click for large picture</figcaption></figure><p>A Conveyer or cart system moves the product to be irradiated under the electron beam at a predetermined speed to obtain the desired dosage. Products move in and out of the irradiation area continuously. Product thickness depends on density and electron energy. For example, e-beam energy can penetrate meat a total of 3.5 inches with treatment on the top and bottom of a package.</p> <p> </p> <h4>X-Ray Facility</h4> <p>Food can also be irradiated by X-rays. In this sytem an electron beam accelerator targets electrons on a metal plate. Some energy is absorbed and the rest is converted to X-rays. Like gamma rays, X-rays can penetrate food boxes up to 15 inches thick or more, thus permitting food to be processed in a shipping container.</p> <p>When food is irradiated, most of the radiation passes through the food without being absorbed. The small amount that is absorbed destroys any insects on grains,produce or spices, extends shelf life, and prevents fruits and vegetables from ripening too fast. Thus, food irradiation may replace chemical fumigants, sprout inhibitors, and post harvest fungicides. Higher doses can kill Salmonella and other harmful bacteria that can contaminate meats and poultry and cause food borne diseases.<span> </span><br /> Food irradiation is a "cold treatment" that achieves its effects without raising the food's temperature significantly, leaving the food closer to its original state. Even spices which are treated for 2-4 hours remain essentially at room temperature. By not using high temperatures, food irradiation minimizes nutrient losses and changes in food texture, color, and flavor.</p> <p>The energy used in food irradiation is not great enough to cause food to become radioactive. During irradiation, energy passes through food much like a ray of light passes through a window. This energy destroys most of the bacteria that can cause disease, yet allows food to retain its high quality.</p> <p>Irradiation pasteurizes food by using energy, just as milk is pasteurized using heat. At the level used, most harmful bacteria will be destroyed. Afterwards, surviving bacteria could start to multiply if the food were mishandled: such as, stored at an improper temperature. The level of irradiation used also does not kill certain spoilage organisms. This is for the protection of consumers. Spoilage bacteria will multiply and alert consumers not to use a product which has been improperly handled.</p> <p><em>As with any food, consumers must take appropriate precautions, such as refrigeration and proper handling and cooking to make sure that potentially harmful organisms do not multiply.</em></p> <h3>Facility Safety</h3> <p><img alt="Water glow" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cfd3444a-0bd5-4cba-ace5-7eb157a49de7" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/glow.jpg" class="align-right" />Water is used to shield the cobalt when it is not in use. The water is not radioactive.</p> <p>Irradiation facilities must include many safety features to prevent both environmental and worker exposure. The use and transportation of radioactive materials - including the equipment and the facilities in which they are used -- are closely monitored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state agencies, and the Department of Transportation.</p> <p>A food irradiation plant is not a nuclear reactor. In a reactor, a nuclear chain reaction takes place, heat is generated and used to make steam which turns a turbine and creates electricity. Proper controls are needed to contain the chain reaction and maintain proper cooling. A food irradiator is completely different.</p> <p><img alt="lab" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f038dce1-3e22-488b-b823-2280650720d3" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/lab.jpg" class="align-right" />The effects of treatment by e-beam, cobalt 60, cesium 137 are identical. Use of one method or another is based upon product size, facility size, anticipated throughput, and other factors.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-food-irradiation" hreflang="en">What is Food Irradiation?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:11:01 +0000 Anonymous 186 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Why irradiate foods? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/why-irradiate-foods <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Why irradiate foods?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Spices and HerbsFood is irradiated to make it safer and more resistant to spoilage. Irradiation destroys insects, fungi that cause food to spoil, or bacteria that cause food borne illness. Irradiation makes it possible to keep food longer and in better condition. Food irradiation is an alternative to some chemical treatments in crop storage. It provides higher quality fruit from insect quarantine areas. Food Irradiation is not a cure-all for all food problems. Proper handling and storage by the food industry and the consumer are still important. Most herbs and spices are grown outside, resulting in a large number of microorganisms, some of which could be hazardous to health. Herbs and spices also could carry insects or insect eggs. Because heat treatment can cause significant loss of flavor and aroma, a &quot;cold&quot; process is necessary. Most spices and herbs are fumigated, usually with ethylene oxide to destroy these contaminates. This fumigant is being phased out for environmental and health reasons. Irradiation is as effective without the environmental concerns of fumigants. Fruits and VegetablesA very low-dose irradiation treatment inhibits sprouting of vegetables such as potatoes, yams, onions, garlic, ginger, and chestnuts, and can replace chemicals that are currently used for this purpose. Some fruits and vegetables stay fresh longer. Irradiated strawberries, for example, retain quality for over two weeks. Meat, Poultry, and PorkGrains that are insect free without the use of fumigants in storage. Low-dose irradiation can kill or sterilize all the developmental stages of insects pests in grain. Dried fruits, vegetables, and nuts are liable to insect attack, and some cannot be effectively disinfected by chemical or physical means other than irradiation. Food irradiation leaves no protective residues, so proper packaging is needed to prevent recontamination by insects or microorganisms. Meat, Poultry, and PorkHigh quality tropical and semitropical fruit from the Mediterranean fruit fly or other pests quarantine areas. Irradiation disinfestation can increase trade in certain tropical fruits, such as citrus fruit, mangoes, and papayas. Food irradiation offers a residue-free means of preventing the importation of harmful insects, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly. Irradiation treatment offers an alternative to fumigation to satisfy the quarantine regulations in a number of countries. Food irradiation makes food safer by destroying microorganisms that can cause food poisoning and parasites that can cause disease. At low-to-medium dose levels, food irradiation kills Salmonellaand Campylobacter. These bacteria are common in poultry and can cause human gastrointestinal disease via the poultry itself when it is not thoroughly cooked, or through cross contamination of other foods in the kitchen. Irradiation also destroys E. coli 0157:H7, a highly virulent bacteria responsible for illness and death and other pathogenic bacteria. Food irradiation also kills other bacteria that cause disease as well as the parasite Trichinella spiralis found in some under cooked pork which can lead to trichinosis in humans. Meat safety has received increased attention following the 1993 outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control, E. coli is estimated to cause 62,458 illnesses, 1843 hospitalizations and 52 deaths yearly. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has mandated ground beef microbiological sampling procedures, and new handling procedures. Health professionals and the food industry are examining several processes which can improve the hygienic quality of animal products, including food irradiation. Irradiation can serve as a pasteurization treatment for solid foods like meat, just as heat pasteurizes liquid foods, like milk and juice. Food irradiation is not a cure-all for all food problems. Proper handling and storage by the consumer are still important. Because irradiation destroys disease-causing bacteria, the process has been used by hospitals to sterilize food for immune-compromised patients and it is used by astronauts in space when food borne illness would be a significant inconvenience. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Spices and HerbsFood is irradiated to make it safer and more resistant to spoilage. Irradiation destroys insects, fungi that cause food to spoil, or bacteria that cause food borne illness. Irradiation makes it possible to keep food longer and in better condition." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"><img alt="Spices and Herbs" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f2decc4a-823e-401a-9cc0-a89e9510b8ef" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/basil.jpg" /><figcaption>Spices and Herbs</figcaption></figure><p>Food is irradiated to make it safer and more resistant to spoilage. Irradiation destroys insects, fungi that cause food to spoil, or bacteria that cause food borne illness. Irradiation makes it possible to keep food longer and in better condition. Food irradiation is an alternative to some chemical treatments in crop storage. It provides higher quality fruit from insect quarantine areas. Food Irradiation is not a cure-all for all food problems. Proper handling and storage by the food industry and the consumer are still important.</p> <p>Most herbs and spices are grown outside, resulting in a large number of microorganisms, some of which could be hazardous to health. Herbs and spices also could carry insects or insect eggs. Because heat treatment can cause significant loss of flavor and aroma, a "cold" process is necessary. Most spices and herbs are fumigated, usually with ethylene oxide to destroy these contaminates. This fumigant is being phased out for environmental and health reasons. Irradiation is as effective without the environmental concerns of fumigants.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"><img alt="Fruits and Vegetables" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b77fd1d6-f648-4647-9b55-96a2bb8f6c2b" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/onipot.jpg" /><figcaption>Fruits and Vegetables</figcaption></figure><p>A very low-dose irradiation treatment inhibits sprouting of vegetables such as potatoes, yams, onions, garlic, ginger, and chestnuts, and can replace chemicals that are currently used for this purpose.</p> <p>Some fruits and vegetables stay fresh longer. Irradiated strawberries, for example, retain quality for over two weeks.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"><img alt="Meat, Poultry, and Pork" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="905dc0ea-7c76-4295-8bf0-e29092a3c3e0" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/mfly.jpg" /><figcaption>Meat, Poultry, and Pork</figcaption></figure><p>Grains that are insect free without the use of fumigants in storage. Low-dose irradiation can kill or sterilize all the developmental stages of insects pests in grain. Dried fruits, vegetables, and nuts are liable to insect attack, and some cannot be effectively disinfected by chemical or physical means other than irradiation.</p> <p>Food irradiation leaves no protective residues, so proper packaging is needed to prevent recontamination by insects or microorganisms.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-right"><img alt="Meat, Poultry, and Pork" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="138910d2-e1f1-4664-902a-4975945369af" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/starfruit.jpg" /><figcaption>Meat, Poultry, and Pork</figcaption></figure><p>High quality tropical and semitropical fruit from the Mediterranean fruit fly or other pests quarantine areas. Irradiation disinfestation can increase trade in certain tropical fruits, such as citrus fruit, mangoes, and papayas. Food irradiation offers a residue-free means of preventing the importation of harmful insects, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly. Irradiation treatment offers an alternative to fumigation to satisfy the quarantine regulations in a number of countries.</p> <p>Food irradiation makes food safer by destroying microorganisms that can cause food poisoning and parasites that can cause disease. At low-to-medium dose levels, food irradiation kills Salmonellaand Campylobacter. These bacteria are common in poultry and can cause human gastrointestinal disease via the poultry itself when it is not thoroughly cooked, or through cross contamination of other foods in the kitchen. Irradiation also destroys E. coli 0157:H7, a highly virulent bacteria responsible for illness and death and other pathogenic bacteria.</p> <p><img alt="Keeping clean" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="ef483433-f445-4c91-9758-d41886de37fa" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/clean.jpg" class="align-right" />Food irradiation also kills other bacteria that cause disease as well as the parasite Trichinella spiralis found in some under cooked pork which can lead to trichinosis in humans.</p> <p>Meat safety has received increased attention following the 1993 outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control, E. coli is estimated to cause 62,458 illnesses, 1843 hospitalizations and 52 deaths yearly.</p> <p>The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has mandated ground beef microbiological sampling procedures, and new handling procedures. Health professionals and the food industry are examining several processes which can improve the hygienic quality of animal products, including food irradiation. Irradiation can serve as a pasteurization treatment for solid foods like meat, just as heat pasteurizes liquid foods, like milk and juice.</p> <p>Food irradiation is not a cure-all for all food problems. Proper handling and storage by the consumer are still important.</p> <p><img alt="space" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5cfdf7bd-6fcf-4541-a1f2-e5b7b5a325b5" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/space.gif" class="align-right" />Because irradiation destroys disease-causing bacteria, the process has been used by hospitals to sterilize food for immune-compromised patients and it is used by astronauts in space when food borne illness would be a significant inconvenience.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-food-irradiation" hreflang="en">What is Food Irradiation?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:04:59 +0000 Anonymous 181 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu How do irradiated products taste? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/how-do-irradiated-products-taste <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How do irradiated products taste?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Most irradiated food tastes the same as non-irradiated. Flavor changes depend on the type of food being irradiated, the irradiation dose, and the temperature during treatment. Many fruits and vegetables are unchanged by low dose irradiation. Irradiation can substitute for insect quarantine treatments that damage fruit quality, so irradiated fruit may taste better. Dried fruit softens slightly and is easier to rehydrate. Poultry, pork and other meats show little or no flavor change at the level of irradiation currently approved by the FDA. High dose irradiation needed to prepare food for astronauts is done while the meat is frozen to preserve flavor. Milk and certain other dairy products develop off-flavors even at low treatment levels. No one has submitted a petition to the FDA to irraidate these products. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Most irradiated food tastes the same as non-irradiated. Flavor changes depend on the type of food being irradiated, the irradiation dose, and the temperature during treatment. Many fruits and vegetables are unchanged by low dose irradiation. Irradiation can substitute for insect quarantine treatments that damage fruit quality, so irradiated fruit may taste better. Dried fruit softens slightly and is easier to rehydrate." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Most irradiated food tastes the same as non-irradiated.</p> <p>Flavor changes depend on the type of food being irradiated, the irradiation dose, and the temperature during treatment.</p> <p>Many fruits and vegetables are unchanged by low dose irradiation. Irradiation can substitute for insect quarantine treatments that damage fruit quality, so irradiated fruit may taste better. Dried fruit softens slightly and is easier to rehydrate.</p> <p>Poultry, pork and other meats show little or no flavor change at the level of irradiation currently approved by the FDA. High dose irradiation needed to prepare food for astronauts is done while the meat is frozen to preserve flavor.</p> <p>Milk and certain other dairy products develop off-flavors even at low treatment levels. No one has submitted a petition to the FDA to irraidate these products.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-food-irradiation" hreflang="en">What is Food Irradiation?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:04:20 +0000 Anonymous 176 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Who Recommends Food Irradiation? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/who-recommends-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Who Recommends Food Irradiation?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="American Medical Association American Dietetic Association American Council on Science and Health Centers for Disease Control Council for Agricultural Science and Technology United State&#039;s Department of Agriculture (USDA) U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) World Health Organization American Veterinarian Medical Association Institute of Food Technologsts Produce Marketing Association "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "American Medical Association American Dietetic Association American Council on Science and Health Centers for Disease Control Council for Agricultural Science and Technology United State&#039;s Department of Agriculture (USDA) " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><ul class="list--arrow"><li><a href="http://www.ama-assn.org/">American Medical Association</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.eatright.org/">American Dietetic Association</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.acsh.org/">American Council on Science and Health</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodirradiation.htm">Centers for Disease Control</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.netins.net/showcase/cast/">Council for Agricultural Science and Technology</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.usda.gov/">United State's Department of Agriculture (USDA)</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.fda.gov/">U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.who.org/">World Health Organization</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.avma.org/">American Veterinarian Medical Association</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.ift.org/">Institute of Food Technologsts</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.pma.com/">Produce Marketing Association</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:02:44 +0000 Anonymous 171 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Who Opposes Food Irradiation and Why? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/who-opposes-food-irradiation-and-why <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Who Opposes Food Irradiation and Why?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Two groups are known to oppose food irradiation, Food and Water Inc, located in Vermonth and Public Citizen, located in Washington D.C. Opponents claim that irradiation produces unique compounds and specifically cite benzene and formaldehyde as hazardous by-products of the irradiation process. Response: Chemicals are formed during irradiation, however they are similar to those formed when food is cooked. Benzene and formaldehyde may be formed in some products; however the level is many times less than found in commonly eaten foods. It is not the presence of a compound that is hazardous, but the quantity. Animal and human testing indicate no harmful effect, even when one hundred percent of the diet is irradiated. Opponents say irradiated food may cause cancer in children. Response: A study conducted in India, in which 5 malnourished children were fed freshly irradiated wheat is the basis for this claim. Those who completed the study deny this association and no study with people or experimental animals has shown increased incidents of cancer. Opponents fear that nuclear energy can not be safely used. Response: Nuclear energy has many applications in medicine. Many common household products, like bandages, articles of hygiene, even tires, are irradiated. Opponents believe that if irradiation is used as a final sanitation process, food handlers will be careless in food preparation. Response: This arguement was levied against pasteurization of milk and juice. Sanitary practices have increased overtime. Since microorganisms are a natural part of the enviroment, pasteurization by heat or energy must take place to increase product safety to today&#039;s high standards. Opponents believe irradiation will be an excuse for careless and unsanitary practices in meat a poultry operations. Response: Meat and poultry facilities must have an approved safe handling plan where they are inspected, and the end product is tested to be sure it meets microbiological safety standards before it may leave the plant. Irradiation takes place after the meat or poultry meets the USDA requirements, therefore it is not possible to bring an illegal product into compliance with irradiation processing. Furthermore, there is an incentive for processors to produce the highest quality (lowest microbiological count) product because a lower dose treatment will be used. This reduces the cost of treatment and assures a higher quality product. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Two groups are known to oppose food irradiation, Food and Water Inc, located in Vermonth and Public Citizen, located in Washington D.C. Opponents claim that irradiation produces unique compounds and specifically cite benzene and formaldehyde as hazardous by-products of the irradiation process." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Two groups are known to oppose food irradiation, Food and Water Inc, located in Vermonth and Public Citizen, located in Washington D.C.</p> <p><strong>Opponents claim that irradiation produces unique compounds and specifically cite benzene and formaldehyde as hazardous by-products of the irradiation process.</strong></p> <p><strong>Response</strong>: Chemicals are formed during irradiation, however they are similar to those formed when food is cooked. Benzene and formaldehyde may be formed in some products; however the level is many times less than found in commonly eaten foods. It is not the presence of a compound that is hazardous, but the quantity. Animal and human testing indicate no harmful effect, even when one hundred percent of the diet is irradiated.</p> <p><strong>Opponents say irradiated food may cause cancer in children.</strong></p> <p><strong>Response</strong>: A study conducted in India, in which 5 malnourished children were fed freshly irradiated wheat is the basis for this claim. Those who completed the study deny this association and no study with people or experimental animals has shown increased incidents of cancer.</p> <p><strong>Opponents fear that nuclear energy can not be safely used.</strong></p> <p><strong>Response</strong>: Nuclear energy has many applications in medicine. Many common household products, like bandages, articles of hygiene, even tires, are irradiated.</p> <p><strong>Opponents believe that if irradiation is used as a final sanitation process, food handlers will be careless in food preparation.</strong></p> <p><strong>Response</strong>: This arguement was levied against pasteurization of milk and juice. Sanitary practices have increased overtime. Since microorganisms are a natural part of the enviroment, pasteurization by heat or energy must take place to increase product safety to today's high standards.</p> <p><strong>Opponents believe irradiation will be an excuse for careless and unsanitary practices in meat a poultry operations.</strong></p> <p><strong>Response</strong>: Meat and poultry facilities must have an approved safe handling plan where they are inspected, and the end product is tested to be sure it meets microbiological safety standards before it may leave the plant. Irradiation takes place after the meat or poultry meets the USDA requirements, therefore it is not possible to bring an illegal product into compliance with irradiation processing. Furthermore, there is an incentive for processors to produce the highest quality (lowest microbiological count) product because a lower dose treatment will be used. This reduces the cost of treatment and assures a higher quality product.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:00:27 +0000 Anonymous 166 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Myths about Food Irradiation https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/myths-about-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Myths about Food Irradiation</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Irradiation offers health and convenience benefits for the public; however misconceptions about the process and its impact on people and the environment are sometimes presented.  Myth: Irradiation would not be necessary if food production and processing facilities were cleaner. This view fails to recognize that microorganisms are a natural part of the ecosystem. Microbiological safety must be achieved; it does not occur automatically, even in a visually clean environment. Since bacteria are ubiquitous, measures must be taken to control them. These include chemical dips or sprays, treatment with energy, i.e. food irradiation, or treatment with heat. Irradiation doesn&#039;t substitute for good manufacturing practices, it augments them. Proper cooking destroys Salmonella, E. coli, and other pathogens; however the potential for cross-contamination is increased when contaminated food enters the kitchen. Chemical or energy treatment destroys the microbes before they are brought home. Treatment of spices is sometimes overlooked. Some believe the choice is natural, wholesome spices or irradiated spices. Actually, most spices are fumigated to control microorganisms and/or insects. Irradiation produces a high quality product with greater worker and environmental safety. Irradiation is a positive move along the continuum of safety. Ten, twenty, or fifty years from now another process could replace irradiation; but today, it offers the greatest safety and quality. Myth: Control of the irradiation process is not adequate. International standards established by an international panel of experts are adopted by many if not all countries. See : How Food Irradiation is Regulated Myth: Irradiation is not safe, and the scientific community opposes its use. Respected national and international organizations, such as the American Medical Association, Centers for Disease Control, and the World Health Organization, endorse the safety of irradiated foods. Scientists acknowledge that no process can be proven safe; rather, scientists develop scenarios to test safety. Irradiated food has been fed to multiple generations of laboratory animals and to human volunteers with no ill effects. When used to destroy microorganisms, irradiation improved food safety. Myth: The public will not know what foods are irradiated and what are not. Labeling of irradiated foods is required, except in restaurant foods and when irradiated spices and dried vegetables are used as flavorings in mixed dishes. Myth: Transportation of radioactive cobalt is hazardous and people will be harmed by accidents. Community safety is not protected. Transportation of radioactive material has occurred for more than 50 years without mishap. Containers and irradiation facilities must meet specific U.S. and international standards (WHO, 1991). Myth: Irradiation facilities will add significant amounts of radioactive waste to the environment. Cobalt used in food irradiation facilities could be &quot;recycled&quot; from that used to sterilize medical equipment. MDS Nordion, the company that produces cobalt60 in the western hemisphere, estimates that all the cobalt60 produced in North America could be stored in a space the size of an office desk. Irradiation by E-Beam and X-rays do not utilize radioactive material. Myth: Irradiation destroys the nutritional content of food. There is some loss of vitamins during irradiation, but this loss is comparable to that of other processing technologies. Opponents claim high losses because they refer to studies that expose food to high doses not permitted in the United States or they refer to older studies that failed to accurately measure nutritional value. Myth: Activist groups who oppose food irradiation reflect public views and protect the public Interest. Activist groups have their own agendas, and they differ in their reliance on science-based information. All groups, however rely on membership for fundraising. Some have demonstrated a tendency to identify and exaggerate &quot;risks&quot; and solicit funds in order to &quot;protect the public interest&quot;, thus maintaining the financial solvency of the organization. Myth: Consumers do not want and will not accept irradiated foods. Marketing studies clearly demonstrate that many consumers prefer irradiated food and will select it over non-irradiated when given the opportunity. Consumers should be given the choice to select safety-enhanced irradiated foods. Myth: Irradiation will make foods radioactive. Irradiation does not change the radioactivity of food, nor does irradiation leaves any residues. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Irradiation offers health and convenience benefits for the public; however misconceptions about the process and its impact on people and the environment are sometimes presented.  Myth: Irradiation would not be necessary if food production and processing facilities were cleaner." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Irradiation offers health and convenience benefits for the public; however misconceptions about the process and its impact on people and the environment are sometimes presented.<span> </span></p> <p><strong>Myth: Irradiation would not be necessary if food production and processing facilities were cleaner.</strong></p> <p>This view fails to recognize that microorganisms are a natural part of the ecosystem. Microbiological safety must be achieved; it does not occur automatically, even in a visually clean environment. Since bacteria are ubiquitous, measures must be taken to control them. These include chemical dips or sprays, treatment with energy, i.e. food irradiation, or treatment with heat. Irradiation doesn't substitute for good manufacturing practices, it augments them.</p> <p>Proper cooking destroys Salmonella, E. coli, and other pathogens; however the potential for cross-contamination is increased when contaminated food enters the kitchen. Chemical or energy treatment destroys the microbes before they are brought home.</p> <p>Treatment of spices is sometimes overlooked. Some believe the choice is natural, wholesome spices or irradiated spices. Actually, most spices are fumigated to control microorganisms and/or insects. Irradiation produces a high quality product with greater worker and environmental safety. Irradiation is a positive move along the continuum of safety. Ten, twenty, or fifty years from now another process could replace irradiation; but today, it offers the greatest safety and quality.</p> <p><strong>Myth: Control of the irradiation process is not adequate.</strong></p> <p>International standards established by an international panel of experts are adopted by many if not all countries. See : How Food Irradiation is Regulated</p> <p><strong>Myth: Irradiation is not safe, and the scientific community opposes its use.</strong></p> <p>Respected national and international organizations, such as the American Medical Association, Centers for Disease Control, and the World Health Organization, endorse the safety of irradiated foods. Scientists acknowledge that no process can be proven safe; rather, scientists develop scenarios to test safety. Irradiated food has been fed to multiple generations of laboratory animals and to human volunteers with no ill effects. When used to destroy microorganisms, irradiation improved food safety.</p> <p><strong>Myth: The public will not know what foods are irradiated and what are not.</strong></p> <p>Labeling of irradiated foods is required, except in restaurant foods and when irradiated spices and dried vegetables are used as flavorings in mixed dishes.</p> <p><strong>Myth: Transportation of radioactive cobalt is hazardous and people will be harmed by accidents. Community safety is not protected.</strong></p> <p>Transportation of radioactive material has occurred for more than 50 years without mishap. Containers and irradiation facilities must meet specific U.S. and international standards (WHO, 1991).</p> <p><strong>Myth: Irradiation facilities will add significant amounts of radioactive waste to the environment.</strong></p> <p>Cobalt used in food irradiation facilities could be "recycled" from that used to sterilize medical equipment. MDS Nordion, the company that produces cobalt60 in the western hemisphere, estimates that all the cobalt60 produced in North America could be stored in a space the size of an office desk. Irradiation by E-Beam and X-rays do not utilize radioactive material.</p> <p><strong>Myth: Irradiation destroys the nutritional content of food.</strong></p> <p>There is some loss of vitamins during irradiation, but this loss is comparable to that of other processing technologies. Opponents claim high losses because they refer to studies that expose food to high doses not permitted in the United States or they refer to older studies that failed to accurately measure nutritional value.</p> <p><strong>Myth: Activist groups who oppose food irradiation reflect public views and protect the public Interest.</strong></p> <p>Activist groups have their own agendas, and they differ in their reliance on science-based information. All groups, however rely on membership for fundraising. Some have demonstrated a tendency to identify and exaggerate "risks" and solicit funds in order to "protect the public interest", thus maintaining the financial solvency of the organization.</p> <p><strong>Myth: Consumers do not want and will not accept irradiated foods.</strong></p> <p>Marketing studies clearly demonstrate that many consumers prefer irradiated food and will select it over non-irradiated when given the opportunity. Consumers should be given the choice to select safety-enhanced irradiated foods.</p> <p><strong>Myth: Irradiation will make foods radioactive.</strong></p> <p>Irradiation does not change the radioactivity of food, nor does irradiation leaves any residues.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 21:58:11 +0000 Anonymous 161 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Are Irradiated Foods in U.S. Supermarkets Now? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/are-irradiated-foods-us-supermarkets-now <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Are Irradiated Foods in U.S. Supermarkets Now?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Irradiation is used to sterilize household products like Band-Aids, cotton balls, contact lens solution, baby pacifiers and many packaging items, sterilize medical products such as surgical gloves, destroy bacteria in cosmetics, make non-stick cookware coatings, purify wool, perform security checks on hand luggage at airports and make tires more durable. Until recently only bulk dried spices were irradiated in the United States. Since January 1992 irradiated produce has been sold in some U.S. supermarkets. Starting in 1995, several thousand pounds of tropical fruits annually were irradiated and sold in Midwest and California markets. In July of 2000 a new facility in Hawaii permitted the transport of high quality tropical fruits previously banned for insect quarantine purposes. In May of 2000, irradiated frozen ground beef was first sold in Minneapolis and quick spread to adjacent states. In early 2001 over 20,000 supermarkets in more than 16 states offer irradiated patties by Huiskens. Colorado beef offers frozen patties from supermarkets. In the mail order arena, several providers including Omaha steaks and Schwan&#039;s offer irradiated ground beef. Frozen irradiated chicken breasts have been available in the Florida area since the late 1990&#039;s. Consumer reception has been positive and the market share of frozen irradiated ground beef has increased. The availability of irradiated food has also increased (click here for a list of supermarkets offering irradiated food). As more consumers become aware of the high quality and enhanced safety of these products, consumer demand and availability should increase. Although marketing is still on a small scale, sales of irradiated foods clearly demonstrates that consumers will select irradiated over non-irradiated foods when they perceive benefits, such as high quality or longer lasting produce or safer meat and poultry. Irradiation sterilization of meals prepared for hospitalized patients is an advantage to those whose immune systems have been suppressed by disease or therapy. Irradiated meat and poultry are also used in some health care facilities where a high level of safety is required.  Irradiated foods are labeled with the radura and the word, &quot;irradiation.&quot;   "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Irradiation is used to sterilize household products like Band-Aids, cotton balls, contact lens solution, baby pacifiers and many packaging items, sterilize medical products such as surgical gloves, destroy bacteria in cosmetics, make non-stick cookware coatings, purify wool, perform security checks on hand luggage at airports and make tires more durable." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="Tropical" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4fcbe169-95fc-419d-8acd-d29b681b7050" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/tropical.jpg" class="align-right" />Irradiation is used to sterilize household products like Band-Aids, cotton balls, contact lens solution, baby pacifiers and many packaging items, sterilize medical products such as surgical gloves, destroy bacteria in cosmetics, make non-stick cookware coatings, purify wool, perform security checks on hand luggage at airports and make tires more durable.</p> <p>Until recently only bulk dried spices were irradiated in the United States. Since January 1992 irradiated produce has been sold in some U.S. supermarkets. Starting in 1995, several thousand pounds of tropical fruits annually were irradiated and sold in Midwest and California markets. In July of 2000 a new facility in Hawaii permitted the transport of high quality tropical fruits previously banned for insect quarantine purposes.</p> <p><img alt="Fruit" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="992ca9d9-5c6b-413c-ba9d-02fd6cdc0040" height="189" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/irrfruit.jpg" width="252" class="align-right" />In May of 2000, irradiated frozen ground beef was first sold in Minneapolis and quick spread to adjacent states. In early 2001 over 20,000 supermarkets in more than 16 states offer irradiated patties by Huiskens. Colorado beef offers frozen patties from supermarkets. In the mail order arena, several providers including Omaha steaks and Schwan's offer irradiated ground beef. Frozen irradiated chicken breasts have been available in the Florida area since the late 1990's. Consumer reception has been positive and the market share of frozen irradiated ground beef has increased. The availability of irradiated food has also increased (click <a href="http://ccr.ucdavis.edu/irr/market.html">here</a> for a list of supermarkets offering irradiated food). As more consumers become aware of the high quality and enhanced safety of these products, consumer demand and availability should increase.</p> <p><img alt="Keeping healthy" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cbacf7f4-c8d3-43cb-956e-36b1485fb260" height="160" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/health.jpg" width="248" class="align-right" />Although marketing is still on a small scale, sales of irradiated foods clearly demonstrates that consumers will select irradiated over non-irradiated foods when they perceive benefits, such as high quality or longer lasting produce or safer meat and poultry.</p> <p>Irradiation sterilization of meals prepared for hospitalized patients is an advantage to those whose immune systems have been suppressed by disease or therapy.</p> <p><img alt="Radura Logo" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cf5c3807-ff0a-4b0b-9d41-dbc084c1d65a" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/radura_0.gif" class="align-right" />Irradiated meat and poultry are also used in some health care facilities where a high level of safety is required.<span> </span></p> <p>Irradiated foods are labeled with the radura and the word, "irradiation."</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/are-irradiated-foods-supermarket" hreflang="en">Are Irradiated Foods in the Supermarket?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 21:53:20 +0000 Anonymous 156 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Is This Technology Being Used in Other Countries? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/technology-being-used-other-countries <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Is This Technology Being Used in Other Countries?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Food irradiation has been approved in 41 countries for more than 30 products. Independent scientific committees in Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Canada and the World Health Organization have endorsed food irradiation. There are more than 150 irradiation facilities in over 40 countries. An estimated 55 facilities worldwide use food irradiation and related food irradiation research, according to a 1989 Library of Congress Report. Many countries sell irradiated spices, onions and potatoes. Irradiated shrimp and frog legs and other products are sold in the Netherlands; irradiated fruit, chicken, cheese and other products are sold in France; and other countries offer products from sausage to tea. In South Africa shelf stable irradiated meals are sold to sports and recreation enthusiasts. Below is a map and list of the countries that either use irradiation for commercial use or have approved food irradiation. Black Flag: Countries with Commercial Irradiation of Food Asia Bangladesh  China  India  Indonesia  Iran  Japan  Korea  Thailand  Africa  Algeria  South Africa  South America  Argentina  Brazil  Chile  Peru  Europe  Belgium  Croatia  Czech Republic  Denmark  Finland  France  Germany  Hungary  Israel  Netherlands  Norway  Poland  Ukraine  United Kingdom  Yugoslavia North America  Canada  Cuba  Mexico  United States Yellow Flag: Countries with Approval of Food Irradiation Asia  Pakistan  Phillippines  Russian Federation  Syria  Europe  Italy  Spain  South America  Costa Rica  Uruguay  "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Food irradiation has been approved in 41 countries for more than 30 products. Independent scientific committees in Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Canada and the World Health Organization have endorsed food irradiation. There are more than 150 irradiation facilities in over 40 countries. An estimated 55 facilities worldwide use food irradiation and related food irradiation research, according to a 1989 Library of Congress Report." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Food irradiation has been approved in 41 countries for more than 30 products. Independent scientific committees in Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Canada and the World Health Organization have endorsed food irradiation.</p> <p>There are more than 150 irradiation facilities in over 40 countries. An estimated 55 facilities worldwide use food irradiation and related food irradiation research, according to a 1989 Library of Congress Report.</p> <p>Many countries sell irradiated spices, onions and potatoes. Irradiated shrimp and frog legs and other products are sold in the Netherlands; irradiated fruit, chicken, cheese and other products are sold in France; and other countries offer products from sausage to tea. In South Africa shelf stable irradiated meals are sold to sports and recreation enthusiasts.</p> <p>Below is a map and list of the countries that either use irradiation for commercial use or have approved food irradiation.</p> <img alt="World map" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e2828e07-977c-4a87-8579-64f80254fb0b" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/worldmap.gif" class="align-center" /><h4>Black Flag: Countries with Commercial Irradiation of Food</h4> <h5>Asia</h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Bangladesh<span> </span></li> <li>China<span> </span></li> <li>India<span> </span></li> <li>Indonesia<span> </span></li> <li>Iran<span> </span></li> <li>Japan<span> </span></li> <li>Korea<span> </span></li> <li>Thailand<span> </span></li> </ul><h5>Africa<span> </span></h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Algeria<span> </span></li> <li>South Africa<span> </span></li> </ul><h5>South America<span> </span></h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Argentina<span> </span></li> <li>Brazil<span> </span></li> <li>Chile<span> </span></li> <li>Peru<span> </span></li> </ul><h5>Europe<span> </span></h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Belgium<span> </span></li> <li>Croatia<span> </span></li> <li>Czech Republic<span> </span></li> <li>Denmark<span> </span></li> <li>Finland<span> </span></li> <li>France<span> </span></li> <li>Germany<span> </span></li> <li>Hungary<span> </span></li> <li>Israel<span> </span></li> <li>Netherlands<span> </span></li> <li>Norway<span> </span></li> <li>Poland<span> </span></li> <li>Ukraine<span> </span></li> <li>United Kingdom<span> </span></li> <li>Yugoslavia</li> </ul><h5>North America<span> </span></h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Canada<span> </span></li> <li>Cuba<span> </span></li> <li>Mexico<span> </span></li> <li>United States</li> </ul><h4>Yellow Flag: Countries with Approval of Food Irradiation</h4> <h5>Asia </h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Pakistan </li> <li>Phillippines </li> <li>Russian Federation </li> <li>Syria </li> </ul><h5>Europe<span> </span></h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Italy<span> </span></li> <li>Spain<span> </span></li> </ul><h5>South America<span> </span></h5> <ul class="list--arrow"><li>Costa Rica<span> </span></li> <li>Uruguay<span> </span></li> </ul></div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/are-irradiated-foods-supermarket" hreflang="en">Are Irradiated Foods in the Supermarket?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 21:47:26 +0000 Anonymous 151 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Is Irradiated Food Safe? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/irradiated-food-safe <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Is Irradiated Food Safe?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Irradiated food can safely be consumed by anyone. In fact, irradiated poultry, meat and seafood (where approved) are recommended because of greater safety. Scientists acknowledge that nothing can be proven safe, rather, scientists develop scenarios to test safety. Irradiated food has been fed to multiple generations of laboratory animals and to human volunteers with no ill effects. Respected national and international organizations, such as the American Medical Association and the World Health Organization, endorse the safety of irradiated foods. Some health professionals recommend irradiated foods for people who want the safest food. Scientists from the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as from many universities reviewed several hundred studies on the effects of food irradiation before concluding that irradiated foods are safe. This summarizes some of the studies when irradiated food was consumed by a variety of subjects. No ill effects were observed. Like other methods of processing, food irradiation causes small chemical changes which produce new substances called radiolytic products. These are measured in parts per billion and can only be detected with sensitive laboratory equipment. They are identical or similar to substances that occur naturally in food that is not irradiated and have been shown to be harmless in the amounts produced. &quot;Free radicals,&quot; are atoms or molecules that are unstable and very reactive. They can be formed during irradiation, and also by toasting, frying, and freeze-drying. The free radicals formed during irradiation quickly change into other, more stable chemicals. These also are considered harmless, based upon animal and human studies. Despite extensive research, there is no evidence that irradiated foods present any increased risk of exposure to harmful substances over conventionally processed foods. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Irradiated food can safely be consumed by anyone. In fact, irradiated poultry, meat and seafood (where approved) are recommended because of greater safety." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><img alt="Study brief" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="73a9ebe1-cb2b-4eec-a394-4f34b5efbcc3" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/study1.jpg" class="align-right" />Irradiated food can safely be consumed by anyone. In fact, irradiated poultry, meat and seafood (where approved) are recommended because of greater safety.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Scientists acknowledge that nothing can be proven safe, rather, scientists develop scenarios to test safety. Irradiated food has been fed to multiple generations of laboratory animals and to human volunteers with no ill effects. Respected national and international organizations, such as the American Medical Association and the World Health Organization, endorse the safety of irradiated foods. Some health professionals recommend irradiated foods for people who want the safest food.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><img alt="Study brief" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d92351d9-e2e1-43b4-b846-d05eeb51bb6e" height="194" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/study2.jpg" width="326" class="align-right" />Scientists from the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, as well as from many universities reviewed several hundred studies on the effects of food irradiation before concluding that irradiated foods are safe. This summarizes some of the studies when irradiated food was consumed by a variety of subjects. No ill effects were observed.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p>Like other methods of processing, food irradiation causes small chemical changes which produce new substances called radiolytic products. These are measured in parts per billion and can only be detected with sensitive laboratory equipment. They are identical or similar to substances that occur naturally in food that is not irradiated and have been shown to be harmless in the amounts produced.</p> <p>"Free radicals," are atoms or molecules that are unstable and very reactive. They can be formed during irradiation, and also by toasting, frying, and freeze-drying. The free radicals formed during irradiation quickly change into other, more stable chemicals. These also are considered harmless, based upon animal and human studies.</p> <p>Despite extensive research, there is no evidence that irradiated foods present any increased risk of exposure to harmful substances over conventionally processed foods.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:30:17 +0000 Anonymous 146 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu How is Safety Tested? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/how-safety-tested <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How is Safety Tested?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken place since the early 1950&#039;s. Irradiated foods have been fed to several species of animals, some up to 40 generations, and people have eaten irradiated foods as part of their total diet. Additionally irradiated foods have been evaluated chemically. Studies have consistently shown no increase in cancer, birth defects or any other negative effect. FDA must approve any use of irradiation on food and USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) must approve the process and the facility if meat or poultry products are involved. USDA&#039;s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service approves use of irradiation for plant quarantine protection. Several foods have been approved in the United States. The FDA sets the maximum dose permitted on food based on what was petitioned to assure safety. The USDA sets the minimum dose on some foods to assure the desired effect, such as destruction of microorganisms or effect insect quarantine control. Over 41 countries nationwide have approved use of irradiation for over 30 food products. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken place since the early 1950&#039;s. Irradiated foods have been fed to several species of animals, some up to 40 generations, and people have eaten irradiated foods as part of their total diet. Additionally irradiated foods have been evaluated chemically. Studies have consistently shown no increase in cancer, birth defects or any other negative effect." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Safety testing of irradiated foods has taken place since the early 1950's. Irradiated foods have been fed to several species of animals, some up to 40 generations, and people have eaten irradiated foods as part of their total diet. Additionally irradiated foods have been evaluated chemically. Studies have consistently shown no increase in cancer, birth defects or any other negative effect.</p> <p>FDA must approve any use of irradiation on food and USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) must approve the process and the facility if meat or poultry products are involved. USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service approves use of irradiation for plant quarantine protection.</p> <p>Several foods have been approved in the United States. The FDA sets the maximum dose permitted on food based on what was petitioned to assure safety. The USDA sets the minimum dose on some foods to assure the desired effect, such as destruction of microorganisms or effect insect quarantine control.</p> <p>Over 41 countries nationwide have approved use of irradiation for over 30 food products.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:29:45 +0000 Anonymous 141 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Does Nutritional Value Change After Irradiation? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/does-nutritional-value-change-after-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Does Nutritional Value Change After Irradiation?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Nutritional studies have shown that low-dose food irradiation does not cause significant changes in nutritional value. Even at the higher doses of irradiation used to extend shelf-life or control harmful bacteria, nutritional losses are less than, or about the same as cooking and freezing. At lower doses, nutrient losses are either not measurable or insignificant. Any change in nutritional value caused by irradiation depends on a number of factors, including the radiation dose, the type of food, packaging and processing conditions, such as temperature during irradiation and storage time. All forms of food processing--cooking, freezing, canning and even storing foods--lower the amounts of some nutrients. Persons opposed to irradiation may claim high nutrient losses; however they incorrectly refer to studies that expose food to high doses not permitted in the United States or they refer to older studies that failed to accurately measure nutritional value (Diehl, 1990; Thorne, 1991). "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Nutritional studies have shown that low-dose food irradiation does not cause significant changes in nutritional value." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Nutritional studies have shown that low-dose food irradiation does not cause significant changes in nutritional value.</p> <p>Even at the higher doses of irradiation used to extend shelf-life or control harmful bacteria, nutritional losses are less than, or about the same as cooking and freezing. At lower doses, nutrient losses are either not measurable or insignificant. Any change in nutritional value caused by irradiation depends on a number of factors, including the radiation dose, the type of food, packaging and processing conditions, such as temperature during irradiation and storage time. All forms of food processing--cooking, freezing, canning and even storing foods--lower the amounts of some nutrients.</p> <p>Persons opposed to irradiation may claim high nutrient losses; however they incorrectly refer to studies that expose food to high doses not permitted in the United States or they refer to older studies that failed to accurately measure nutritional value (Diehl, 1990; Thorne, 1991).</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:29:13 +0000 Anonymous 136 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Are There Hazards with Food Irradiation? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/news/are-there-hazards-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Are There Hazards with Food Irradiation?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Today&#039;s consumers are increasingly concerned about environmental and worker safety. Since there are about 40 irradiators in the United States and many more world wide, a safety record is readily available. Shipment of cobalt60 and other radioisotopes is governed by stringent rules and regulations. Cobalt60 is sealed in metal rods and must be shipped in reinforced, double encapsulated metal casks. These casks are designed to withstand the most severe accidents, including collisions, punctures and exposure to fire and water depths. Facilities are constructed to standards designed with multiple safeguards to protect worker health and safeguard the community should a natural disaster like an earthquake or tornado occur. In the irradiation process there are no hot fluids generated, no radioactive gases released, no way for the facility to experience a melt down and no way that material could be used to produce nuclear weapons. Facilities following internationally established procedures have never had an accident which endangered the worker or community. The most common source of energy is cobalt60. Cesium137 is used in some facilities, and some use machine generated energy. A U.S. facility using cesium experienced a leak of radioactive material in 1988. This was cleaned with no damage to the surrounding community (WHO, 1991). Because cesium is soluble in water, it is more difficult to contain. Cesium containers have been modified for greater safety and most store in dry enviroments. Use of spent radioactive material has also been addressed.   Cobalt used in food irradiation facilities could be &quot;recycled&quot; from that used to sterilize medical facilities. Food uses require very low energy output and medical facilities require high levels to achieve complete sterility. Only about 10% of cobalt59 is converted to radioactive cobalt60. Instead of storing cobalt60 when the energy rating is low, additional cobalt in the original rod could be converted to cobalt60. This is not done at this time because of technical difficulty, but is theoretically possible. When the useful life of the cobalt is finally over, it is estimated that all the material produced in North America could be stored in a space the size of an office desk. As irradiation processing expands, a range of energy sources may be used depending on the application. The USDA is currently evaluating a 8.5&#039; x 10.5&#039; x 12 unit using cesium137 which can be located at a food processing facility. Called Gray Star, this unit uses recycled cesium137 to destroy pathogens. Because of depth of penetration, machine generated or electron beam sources are a more effective treatment on thin products passing along a conveyer belt where pallet loads of food are processed using cobalt or cesium. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Today&#039;s consumers are increasingly concerned about environmental and worker safety. Since there are about 40 irradiators in the United States and many more world wide, a safety record is readily available. Shipment of cobalt60 and other radioisotopes is governed by stringent rules and regulations. Cobalt60 is sealed in metal rods and must be shipped in reinforced, double encapsulated metal casks. These casks are designed to withstand the most severe accidents, including collisions, punctures and exposure to fire and water depths." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Today's consumers are increasingly concerned about environmental and worker safety. Since there are about 40 irradiators in the United States and many more world wide, a safety record is readily available.</p> <p>Shipment of cobalt60 and other radioisotopes is governed by stringent rules and regulations. Cobalt60 is sealed in metal rods and must be shipped in reinforced, double encapsulated metal casks. These casks are designed to withstand the most severe accidents, including collisions, punctures and exposure to fire and water depths.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="Hazard" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="efda5533-a1f4-4db2-b753-628bacdc494e" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/cont1.jpg" /><img alt="Hazard" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cf490357-d335-4328-b0f7-5968bed42527" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/cont2.jpg" /></p> <p><img alt="Test" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a92a54f9-ff81-44cf-ab08-0cbd4a5dbe13" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/test.jpg" class="align-right" />Facilities are constructed to standards designed with multiple safeguards to protect worker health and safeguard the community should a natural disaster like an earthquake or tornado occur.</p> <p>In the irradiation process there are no hot fluids generated, no radioactive gases released, no way for the facility to experience a melt down and no way that material could be used to produce nuclear weapons.</p> <p>Facilities following internationally established procedures have never had an accident which endangered the worker or community.</p> <p>The most common source of energy is cobalt60. Cesium137 is used in some facilities, and some use machine generated energy. A U.S. facility using cesium experienced a leak of radioactive material in 1988. This was cleaned with no damage to the surrounding community (WHO, 1991). Because cesium is soluble in water, it is more difficult to contain. Cesium containers have been modified for greater safety and most store in dry enviroments.</p> <p><img alt="radio" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d4ad6a8d-fde0-4927-ab18-7fcbf15e68c0" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/radio.gif" class="align-left" />Use of spent radioactive material has also been addressed.</p> <p> </p> <p>Cobalt used in food irradiation facilities could be "recycled" from that used to sterilize medical facilities. Food uses require very low energy output and medical facilities require high levels to achieve complete sterility.</p> <p>Only about 10% of cobalt59 is converted to radioactive cobalt60. Instead of storing cobalt60 when the energy rating is low, additional cobalt in the original rod could be converted to cobalt60. This is not done at this time because of technical difficulty, but is theoretically possible.</p> <p>When the useful life of the cobalt is finally over, it is estimated that all the material produced in North America could be stored in a space the size of an office desk.</p> <p>As irradiation processing expands, a range of energy sources may be used depending on the application. The USDA is currently evaluating a 8.5' x 10.5' x 12 unit using cesium137 which can be located at a food processing facility. Called Gray Star, this unit uses recycled cesium137 to destroy pathogens. Because of depth of penetration, machine generated or electron beam sources are a more effective treatment on thin products passing along a conveyer belt where pallet loads of food are processed using cobalt or cesium.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:24:41 +0000 Anonymous 131 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Are Irradiated Foods Labeled? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/are-irradiated-foods-labeled <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Are Irradiated Foods Labeled?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled &quot;Irradiated&quot; and to bear an international logo, the radura. The petals represent the food, the central circle the radiation source, and the broken circle illustrate the rays from the energy source. For irradiated foods that are not packaged, such as bulk containers of fruit and vegetable, retailers must prominently display the required logo and phrase. Labeling requirements apply only to whole foods that have been irradiated. Foods containing irradiated ingredients such as spices, but which are not themselves irradiated, need not bear a label. Labeling is not required in restaurant foods. Opponents of irradiation in the United States want labeling on restaurant foods. If accompanied by an educational program, most consumers prefer the safety of irradiated foods compared to the increased potential for foodborne illness from non-irradiated food. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled &quot;Irradiated&quot; and to bear an international logo, the radura. The petals represent the food, the central circle the radiation source, and the broken circle illustrate the rays from the energy source." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="Radura Logo" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="071a80d6-8555-48c7-99a5-858e914f20a6" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/radura.gif" class="align-right" />Government regulations require irradiated food at the retail level to be labeled "Irradiated" and to bear an international logo, the radura.</p> <p>The petals represent the food, the central circle the radiation source, and the broken circle illustrate the rays from the energy source.</p> <p><img alt="Strawberries" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d1ae288b-5f3f-4f67-9716-920d79104e69" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/sberry.jpg" class="align-left" />For irradiated foods that are not packaged, such as bulk containers of fruit and vegetable, retailers must prominently display the required logo and phrase. Labeling requirements apply only to whole foods that have been irradiated.</p> <p>Foods containing irradiated ingredients such as spices, but which are not themselves irradiated, need not bear a label.</p> <p>Labeling is not required in restaurant foods. Opponents of irradiation in the United States want labeling on restaurant foods. If accompanied by an educational program, most consumers prefer the safety of irradiated foods compared to the increased potential for foodborne illness from non-irradiated food.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/safety-issues" hreflang="en">Safety Issues</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:22:59 +0000 Anonymous 126 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu How is Food Irradiation Regulated? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/how-food-irradiation-regulated <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How is Food Irradiation Regulated?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Use of irradiation on foods requires the approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). USDA&#039;s Food Safety and Inspection Services (FSIS) must approve use for meats and poultry. USDA&#039;s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service approves use of irradiation for plant quarantine protection. A food irradiation facility is licensed as a food processing establishment and is regulated by the government agency responsible for the regulation of irradiation application and installation. The facility, which must be approved by governmental authorities before construction, is subject to regular inspections, audits and other reviews to ensure that it is safely and properly operated. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Use of irradiation on foods requires the approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). USDA&#039;s Food Safety and Inspection Services (FSIS) must approve use for meats and poultry." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><img alt="FDA" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="8fdc3b76-507c-46e2-b707-9a637528b5bf" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/fda.gif" class="align-right" />Use of irradiation on foods requires the approval of the U.S. <a href="http://www.fda.gov/">Food and Drug Administration (FDA)</a>. USDA's <a href="http://www.usda.gov/agency/fsis/homepage.htm">Food Safety and Inspection Services (FSIS)</a> must approve use for meats and poultry. USDA's <a href="http://www.aphis.usda.gov/">Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service</a> approves use of irradiation for plant quarantine protection.</p> <p>A food irradiation facility is licensed as a food processing establishment and is regulated by the government agency responsible for the regulation of irradiation application and installation. The facility, which must be approved by governmental authorities before construction, is subject to regular inspections, audits and other reviews to ensure that it is safely and properly operated.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:21:40 +0000 Anonymous 121 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Consumer Acceptance of Food Irradiation https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation/consumer-acceptance-food-irradiation <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Consumer Acceptance of Food Irradiation</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/food-irradiation.rss" addthis:title="Food Irradiation" addthis:description="Consumer attitude and marketing studies show that, given information about irradiation, half or more will choose irradiated foods. A minority object to irradiation and will never select it. In a 1995-96 study, after seeing a 10 minute video describing irradiation, interest in buying irradiated foods among California and Indiana consumers increased fron 57% to 82%.   "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Consumer attitude and marketing studies show that, given information about irradiation, half or more will choose irradiated foods. A minority object to irradiation and will never select it." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>Consumer attitude and marketing studies show that, given information about irradiation, half or more will choose irradiated foods. A minority object to irradiation and will never select it.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span><span>In a 1995-96 study, after seeing a 10 minute video describing irradiation, interest in buying irradiated foods among California and Indiana consumers increased fron 57% to 82%.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <img alt="Survey" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="60d034d9-e4af-4bb5-8402-7593f95136e4" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/accept1.jpg" class="align-center" /><p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/food-irradiation-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Food Irradiation Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 19:20:35 +0000 Anonymous 116 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu