Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers for Center for Consumer Research en What is Food Biotechnology? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/what-food-biotechnology <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What is Food Biotechnology?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-primary-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/styles/sf_landscape_16x9/public/images/article/history.jpg?h=90245188&amp;itok=cwAhS73z" width="1280" height="720" alt="biotechnology history" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-sf-landscape-16x9" /> </div> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/46/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="Every fruit, vegetable, grain and domestic animal we see today is the result of genetic modification. Biotechnology refines and extends methods that produce new plants and animals. Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. For ten thousand years fermentation, a form of biotechnology, has been used to produce wine, beer and bread. Selective breeding of animals such as horses and dogs has been going on for centuries. Selective breeding of essential foods such as rice, corn and wheat have created thousands of local varieties with improved yield compared to their wild ancestors. Wheat that is best for bread is different from wheat that is best for pasta. This was accomplished through conventional breeding over many years using traditional methods. However, such methods were often unpredictable and inefficient, resulting in undesirable traits passed along with desirable ones. Today, through newer biotechnology and genetic engineering, scientists use techniques such as recombinant DNA (rDNA). Scientists, by using rDNA, can move one gene, the inherited instruction for specific traits, from one organism to another and omit the undesirable traits. This enables food producers to obtain animal and crop improvements in a much more precise, controlled and predictable manner. The potential benefits of biotechnology are enormous. Food producers can use new biotechnology to produce new products with desirable characteristics. These include characteristics such as disease and drought-resistant plants, leaner meat and enhanced flavor and nutritional quality of foods. This technology has also been used to develop life-saving vaccines, insulin, cancer treatment and other pharmaceuticals to improve quality of life. In the past, plant breeders were limited to introducing traits within the same botanical family, such as wheat to wheat. Only pollen from a compatible parent wheat could be used to fertilize the seed-producing plant. The diversity of traits possible from this combination was limited by these genetic compatibility barriers. Today, gene transfer is not confined within cross-breeding species but can cross genetic barriers such as corn to tomato. A gene for a single trait can be identified and transferred from many sources. Current applications of rDNA have been used to change a trait in its native plant system. For example a tomato to tomato transfer can control softening and ripening of the fruit. Another application is the transfer of modified forms of plant virus genes to plants to create a plant with complete resistance to that virus. It is easy to see how the use of rDNA enables much wider application of nature&#039;s diversity. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Every fruit, vegetable, grain and domestic animal we see today is the result of genetic modification. Biotechnology refines and extends methods that produce new plants and animals." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>Every fruit, vegetable, grain and domestic animal we see today is the result of genetic modification. Biotechnology refines and extends methods that produce new plants and animals.</em></p> <hr /><p><img alt="biotechnology history" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="abdb14ca-6cf1-4840-924a-d3653a47c046" height="118" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/history.jpg" width="174" class="align-right" />Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. For ten thousand years fermentation, a form of biotechnology, has been used to produce wine, beer and bread. Selective breeding of animals such as horses and dogs has been going on for centuries. Selective breeding of essential foods such as rice, corn and wheat have created thousands of local varieties with improved yield compared to their wild ancestors.</p> <hr /><p><img alt="Bread" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="30279580-9f7a-4fd7-b29d-80c6e7870d91" height="127" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/bread.gif" width="118" class="align-left" />Wheat that is best for bread is different from wheat that is best for pasta. This was accomplished through conventional breeding over many years using traditional methods. However, such methods were often unpredictable and inefficient, resulting in undesirable traits passed along with desirable ones.</p> <hr /><p><img alt="DNA" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9a0967d7-6d96-486d-9eb7-64c4025cc39e" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/dna.gif" class="align-right" />Today, through newer biotechnology and genetic engineering, scientists use techniques such as recombinant DNA (rDNA). Scientists, by using rDNA, can move one gene, the inherited instruction for specific traits, from one organism to another and omit the undesirable traits. This enables food producers to obtain animal and crop improvements in a much more precise, controlled and predictable manner.</p> <hr /><p><img alt="cadu" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="2ce346b7-04d2-4b1a-a0f0-eb9fae84752c" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/cadu.gif" class="align-left" />The potential benefits of biotechnology are enormous. Food producers can use new biotechnology to produce new products with desirable characteristics. These include characteristics such as disease and drought-resistant plants, leaner meat and enhanced flavor and nutritional quality of foods. This technology has also been used to develop life-saving vaccines, insulin, cancer treatment and other pharmaceuticals to improve quality of life.</p> <hr /><p><em>In the past, plant breeders were limited to introducing traits within the same botanical family, such as wheat to wheat. Only pollen from a compatible parent wheat could be used to fertilize the seed-producing plant. The diversity of traits possible from this combination was limited by these genetic compatibility barriers. Today, gene transfer is not confined within cross-breeding species but can cross genetic barriers such as corn to tomato. A gene for a single trait can be identified and transferred from many sources.</em></p> <hr /><p><img alt="Tomato" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6a8e4a22-d957-49e4-892e-f6874463c702" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/tom2_0.jpg" class="align-right" />Current applications of rDNA have been used to change a trait in its native plant system. For example a tomato to tomato transfer can control softening and ripening of the fruit. Another application is the transfer of modified forms of plant virus genes to plants to create a plant with complete resistance to that virus. It is easy to see how the use of rDNA enables much wider application of nature's diversity.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/biotechnology-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 18:52:52 +0000 Anonymous 96 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Benefits of Biotechnology https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/benefits-biotechnology <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Benefits of Biotechnology</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-primary-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/styles/sf_landscape_16x9/public/images/article/veg.jpg?h=b02b37cb&amp;itok=poeKx_3m" width="1280" height="720" alt="Vegetables" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-sf-landscape-16x9" /> </div> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/46/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="People have been modifying plants, animals and microorganisms for specific uses for centuries. Today, there are newer, more precise methods of genetic modification that are being used to introduce diverse beneficial characteristics including: Better tasting fruits or vegetables  Fruits and vegetables that retain their flavor and texture longer  Fruits, vegetables, grains or oils which enhance health   Plants with their own built-in pest resistance traits, so fewer pesticides are applied to fields  Rapid, sensitive, and accurate diagnostic kits to monitor for agricultural pests. Growers will use this information to reduce pesticide use and improve the timing of applications  Plants resistant to virus, so less pesticides are needed to control the insects which transmit the virus Plants better able to tolerate stressful conditions such as high or low temperatures, drought and high salts in soil or water  Vaccines for animals to protect against diseases otherwise not controllable. Consistent, reliable and highly purified enzymes for food processing. In cheese production, Chymosin®, a product of biotechnology, replaces the more expensive and variable enzyme rennin, obtained from animal sources.   Biotechnology is also used to produce pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin for diabetics and medicine to treat numerous diseases. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "People have been modifying plants, animals and microorganisms for specific uses for centuries. Today, there are newer, more precise methods of genetic modification that are being used to introduce diverse beneficial characteristics including:" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>People have been modifying plants, animals and microorganisms for specific uses for centuries. Today, there are newer, more precise methods of genetic modification that are being used to introduce diverse beneficial characteristics including:</p> <ul><li><img alt="Vegetables" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="bce7258d-ffe2-41ed-9104-c7654691ed38" height="114" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/veg.jpg" width="174" class="align-right" />Better tasting fruits or vegetables<span> </span></li> <li>Fruits and vegetables that retain their flavor and texture longer<span> </span></li> <li>Fruits, vegetables, grains or oils which enhance health</li> </ul><p> </p> <hr /><ul><li> <div><img alt="Pest" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="24a5b190-6e06-44d9-a2a4-51def4012b93" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/pest.gif" class="align-right" />Plants with their own built-in pest resistance traits, so fewer pesticides are applied to fields </div> </li> <li> <div>Rapid, sensitive, and accurate diagnostic kits to monitor for agricultural pests. Growers will use this information to reduce pesticide use and improve the timing of applications </div> </li> <li> <div>Plants resistant to virus, so less pesticides are needed to control the insects which transmit the virus</div> </li> </ul><div> <hr /><ul><li> <div>Plants better able to tolerate stressful conditions such as high or low temperatures, drought and high salts in soil or water </div> </li> <li> <div>Vaccines for animals to protect against diseases otherwise not controllable.</div> </li> </ul><div> <hr /><ul><li><img alt="Cheese" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="30fdcdb1-c601-46f5-b0bc-8332b0ae4304" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/cheese.jpg" class="align-right" />Consistent, reliable and highly purified enzymes for food processing. In cheese production, Chymosin®, a product of biotechnology, replaces the more expensive and variable enzyme rennin, obtained from animal sources.</li> </ul><p> </p> <hr /><ul><li>Biotechnology is also used to produce pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin for diabetics and medicine to treat numerous diseases.</li> </ul></div> </div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/biotechnology-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 18:47:31 +0000 Anonymous 91 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Are Foods Developed from Recombinant DNA Safe to Eat? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/are-foods-developed-recombinant-dna-safe-eat <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Are Foods Developed from Recombinant DNA Safe to Eat?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/46/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="The National Academy of Science has concluded that these foods pose no new or unique risks. Although any food can be mishandled, the food in the market is considered safe. New food developed through recombinant DNA is considered easier to evaluate for safety compared to those developed through traditional breeding because the new method is more precise. Instead of randomly combining all the traits of the two parent organisms, recombinant DNA permits identification and transfer of only desirable traits. With any new technology there are potential benefits as well as potential risks. Biotechnology involves introducing specific genes or genetic material from the same or another species into plants or animals to achieve precise and desirable results. These results are as safe as those from traditional methods. The world&#039;s leading scientists agree that foods developed through genetic engineering are as safe, if not safer than foods developed by traditional methods. Some believe changes produced by biotechnology are safer than traditional methods because specific genes are incorporated in those from the new product. With this precision, safety evaluation is believed to be more accurate because scientists know what has been changed and therefore what to look for when evaluating possible risk. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "The National Academy of Science has concluded that these foods pose no new or unique risks. Although any food can be mishandled, the food in the market is considered safe. New food developed through recombinant DNA is considered easier to evaluate for safety compared to those developed through traditional breeding because the new method is more precise. Instead of randomly combining all the traits of the two parent organisms, recombinant DNA permits identification and transfer of only desirable traits." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><a href="http://www.nas.edu/">The National Academy of Science</a><span> </span>has concluded that these foods pose no new or unique risks.</p> <p>Although any food can be mishandled, the food in the market is considered safe. New food developed through recombinant DNA is considered easier to evaluate for safety compared to those developed through traditional breeding because the new method is more precise.</p> <p>Instead of randomly combining all the traits of the two parent organisms, recombinant DNA permits identification and transfer of only desirable traits.</p> <p>With any new technology there are potential benefits as well as potential risks.</p> <p>Biotechnology involves introducing specific genes or genetic material from the same or another species into plants or animals to achieve precise and desirable results. These results are as safe as those from traditional methods. The world's leading scientists agree that foods developed through genetic engineering are as safe, if not safer than foods developed by traditional methods.</p> <p>Some believe changes produced by biotechnology are safer than traditional methods because specific genes are incorporated in those from the new product. With this precision, safety evaluation is believed to be more accurate because scientists know what has been changed and therefore what to look for when evaluating possible risk.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/biotechnology-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 18:46:48 +0000 Anonymous 86 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Will Foods Produced by Biotechnology be Regulated? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/will-foods-produced-biotechnology-be-regulated <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Will Foods Produced by Biotechnology be Regulated?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/46/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="State and federal agencies currently regulate this area. As with conventional breeding, foods traditionally eaten and considered safe will not need special review. If a food&#039;s nutritional value is changed, the effect on the diet must be evaluated. Any change that raises a safety question, such as incorporating a natural pesticide or a protein known t o cause allergies, requires a full evaluation of human and environmental safety. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "State and federal agencies currently regulate this area. As with conventional breeding, foods traditionally eaten and considered safe will not need special review. If a food&#039;s nutritional value is changed, the effect on the diet must be evaluated. Any change that raises a safety question, such as incorporating a natural pesticide or a protein known t o cause allergies, requires a full evaluation of human and environmental safety. " } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div>State and federal agencies currently regulate this area.</div> <p>As with conventional breeding, foods traditionally eaten and considered safe will not need special review. If a food's nutritional value is changed, the effect on the diet must be evaluated. Any change that raises a safety question, such as incorporating a natural pesticide or a protein known t o cause allergies, requires a full evaluation of human and environmental safety.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/biotechnology-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 18:45:46 +0000 Anonymous 81 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu What Products of Biotechnology Are in U.S. Supermarkets Now? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/what-products-biotechnology-are-us-supermarkets-now <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">What Products of Biotechnology Are in U.S. Supermarkets Now?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/46/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="In the past, cheese was made using the enzyme rennin, extracted from a calf&#039;s stomach. Now a purer rDNA-derived enzyme preparation, Chymosin, is used in the production of more than half of the cheese in the market. Papaya is one of several fruits that is currently sold in the markets. Please see this link for more information Several plant products are currently grown and sold in some areas.   Product Benefit Potatoes, corn, tomatoes  Resistant to insects Less pesticide use Zucchini, crook necked squash  Resistant to virus Less pesticide needed to control insects which spread the virus Tomatoes  Controlled or delayed ripening allows the best balance of sugars and tartness Better tasting product for the consumer Reduced loss to molds after harvest Milk produced more efficiently Less feed needed and less manure produced   "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "In the past, cheese was made using the enzyme rennin, extracted from a calf&#039;s stomach. Now a purer rDNA-derived enzyme preparation, Chymosin, is used in the production of more than half of the cheese in the market. Papaya is one of several fruits that is currently sold in the markets. Please see this link for more information Several plant products are currently grown and sold in some areas." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>In the past, cheese was made using the enzyme rennin, extracted from a calf's stomach. Now a purer rDNA-derived enzyme preparation, Chymosin, is used in the production of more than half of the cheese in the market.</p> <p>Papaya is one of several fruits that is currently sold in the markets. Please see<span> </span><a href="http://www.scisoc.org/feature/papaya/Top.html">this link for more information</a></p> <p>Several plant products are currently grown and sold in some areas.</p> <table><thead><tr><th> </th> <th>Product</th> <th>Benefit</th> </tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><img alt="corn" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5c8a6d01-1305-465c-af0b-757d28696923" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/corn.gif" class="align-right" /></td> <td> <ul><li> <div>Potatoes, corn, tomatoes </div> </li> <li> <div>Resistant to insects</div> </li> </ul></td> <td>Less pesticide use</td> </tr><tr><td><img alt="squash" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="039fd848-f62a-4786-830d-57d43dca62a2" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/squash.jpg" class="align-right" /></td> <td> <ul><li> <div>Zucchini, crook necked squash </div> </li> <li> <div>Resistant to virus</div> </li> </ul></td> <td>Less pesticide needed to control insects which spread the virus</td> </tr><tr><td><img alt="tomato" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="77a65e4f-63a3-4a8a-a582-1eaef8b5df74" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/tom2.jpg" class="align-right" /></td> <td> <ul><li> <div>Tomatoes </div> </li> <li> <div>Controlled or delayed ripening allows the best balance of sugars and tartness</div> </li> </ul></td> <td>Better tasting product for the consumer<br /> Reduced loss to molds after harvest</td> </tr><tr><td><img alt="milk" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="3a474ca2-ffb2-492a-8081-81916e577065" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/milk.jpg" class="align-right" /></td> <td> <ul><li>Milk produced more efficiently</li> </ul></td> <td>Less feed needed and less manure produced</td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/biotechnology-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 18:41:13 +0000 Anonymous 76 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Who opposes Biotechnology and Why? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/who-opposes-biotechnology-and-why <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Who opposes Biotechnology and Why?</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/46/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="Concern relates to personal philosophy, perception of risks and familiarity with biology. Areas of concern include: Change in one area will impact the entire ecosystem. No one really knows what will happen. People can not anticipate and control all potential risks of gene transfer. Humans do not have the right to modify plants or animals. Only those changes which occur &quot;naturally&quot; without human intervention should be permitted. All products should be tested for human and environmental safety. This should include long term animal feedings and clinical human tests and extensive crop field testing. The social and economic consequences of changes in biotechnology are inadequately evaluated. The development of pesticide-resistant plants may cause farmers to use pesticides more frequently if the pesticides do not harm the agricultural crop. Alternatively, weeds could become resistant to pesticides. The scientific techniques of making changes in DNA are subject to patent laws. Critics of this technology believe this enables companies to &quot;patent life.&quot; For more information on concerns over biotechnology, see the Union of Concerned Scientists "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Concern relates to personal philosophy, perception of risks and familiarity with biology. Areas of concern include:" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Concern relates to personal philosophy, perception of risks and familiarity with biology. Areas of concern include:</p> <ul><li>Change in one area will impact the entire ecosystem. No one really knows what will happen. People can not anticipate and control all potential risks of gene transfer.</li> <li>Humans do not have the right to modify plants or animals. Only those changes which occur "naturally" without human intervention should be permitted.</li> <li>All products should be tested for human and environmental safety. This should include long term animal feedings and clinical human tests and extensive crop field testing.</li> <li>The social and economic consequences of changes in biotechnology are inadequately evaluated.</li> <li>The development of pesticide-resistant plants may cause farmers to use pesticides more frequently if the pesticides do not harm the agricultural crop. Alternatively, weeds could become resistant to pesticides.</li> <li>The scientific techniques of making changes in DNA are subject to patent laws. Critics of this technology believe this enables companies to "patent life."</li> </ul><p><em>For more information on concerns over biotechnology, see the<span> </span><a href="http://www.ucsusa.org/">Union of Concerned Scientists</a></em></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/biotechnology-questions-answers" hreflang="en">Biotechnology Questions &amp; Answers</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 18:12:53 +0000 Anonymous 71 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu