What &#039;s New in Biotechnology? https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology What &#039;s New in Biotechnology? for Center for Consumer Research en Genetically Engineered Corn For The Production of Hepatitis B Vaccine (Apr 2004) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/genetically-engineered-corn-production-hepatitis-b-vaccine-apr-2004 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"> Genetically Engineered Corn For The Production of Hepatitis B Vaccine (Apr 2004)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/41/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="An article titled &quot;GM maize could produce hepatitis B vaccine&quot; was posted on April 7 on the web site of the Science and Development Network, SciDev.net, which is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Canada, and Rockefeller Foundation and which is supported by the scientific journals Nature and Science - The article notes that &quot; ... Egyptian scientists have genetically engineered maize plants to produce a protein used to make the hepatitis B virus vaccine. They hope that their findings could eventually lead to the creation of an edible vaccine that could be locally produced and would dispense with the need for expensive vaccination programmes ... A vaccine against the disease is already available, but the Egyptian researchers say that edible vaccines produced by GM plants would be cheaper and would not need to be refrigerated. A team of researchers led by Hania El-itriby, director of Cairo&#039;s Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, developed GM maize plants that produce the protein known as HbsAg, which elicits an immune response against the hepatitis B virus and could be used as a vaccine. The scientists are now attempting to increase the amount of the protein produced by the plants. They have not yet tested the effectiveness of the edible vaccine in animals and humans, but expect that tests will start early next year ... "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "An article titled &quot;GM maize could produce hepatitis B vaccine&quot; was posted on April 7 on the web site of the Science and Development Network, SciDev.net, which is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Canada, and Rockefeller Foundation and which is supported by the scientific journals Nature and Science - The article notes that" } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>An article titled "GM maize could produce hepatitis B vaccine" was posted on April 7 on the web site of the Science and Development Network, SciDev.net, which is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Canada, and Rockefeller Foundation and which is supported by the scientific journals Nature and Science - The article notes that</p> <blockquote> <p><em>" ... Egyptian scientists have genetically engineered maize plants to produce a protein used to make the hepatitis B virus vaccine. They hope that their findings could eventually lead to the creation of an edible vaccine that could be locally produced and would dispense with the need for expensive vaccination programmes ... A vaccine against the disease is already available, but the Egyptian researchers say that edible vaccines produced by GM plants would be cheaper and would not need to be refrigerated. A team of researchers led by Hania El-itriby, director of Cairo's Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, developed GM maize plants that produce the protein known as HbsAg, which elicits an immune response against the hepatitis B virus and could be used as a vaccine. The scientists are now attempting to increase the amount of the protein produced by the plants. They have not yet tested the effectiveness of the edible vaccine in animals and humans, but expect that tests will start early next year ...</em></p> </blockquote> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:56:21 +0000 Anonymous 56 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Brazil Maps Arabica Coffee Genome To Improve Quality (Apr 2004) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/brazil-maps-arabica-coffee-genome-improve-quality-apr-2004 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden"> Brazil Maps Arabica Coffee Genome To Improve Quality (Apr 2004)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology.rss" addthis:title="Biotechnology" addthis:description="Reuters - 20-Apr-2004 - Peter Blackburn(c) 2004 Reuters Limited RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil, April 20 (Reuters) - Brazilian scientists finished mapping the arabica coffee genome with the aim of raising the tree&#039;s resistance to disease and harsh weather and improving quality, a research leader said on Tuesday. A coffee genome is made up of 11 chromosomes which are packed with genes and form a blueprint for the beverage&#039;s taste, texture, flavor and other qualities. During the past two years, scientists from Brazil, the world&#039;s biggest coffee grower and exporter, produced 200,000 genetic sequences from which 35,000 genes were identified. Many of the genes recur in roots, branches and leaves of coffee trees. &quot;The object is to improve coffee quality and yields by protecting trees from disease and weather,&quot; project coordinator Alan Carvalho Andrade of the government&#039;s Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) told Reuters. &quot;We can now start with coffee institutions, the functional phase which is about how to use the data bank on the 35,000 genes to improve coffee quality,&quot; he added. Andrade said it was uncertain how long it would take to start commercial production of improved coffee varieties. Researchers have estimated that cost savings of between 50 and 100 percent could be made on herbicides, pesticides and other crop chemicals, and that  productivity could be raised by between 30 and 50 percent. Sao Paulo&#039;s research foundation (Fapesp) helped coordinate the coffee genome project which cost 6 million reais (US$2.05 million) and was funded by the National Coffee Development Fund (Funcafe). "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Reuters - 20-Apr-2004 - Peter Blackburn(c) 2004 Reuters Limited RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil, April 20 (Reuters) - Brazilian scientists finished mapping the arabica coffee genome with the aim of raising the tree&#039;s resistance to disease and harsh weather and improving quality, a research leader said on Tuesday. A coffee genome is made up of 11 chromosomes which are packed with genes and form a blueprint for the beverage&#039;s taste, texture, flavor and other qualities." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p><em>Reuters - 20-Apr-2004 - Peter Blackburn</em><br /><em>(c) 2004 Reuters Limited</em></p> <p>RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil, April 20 (Reuters) - Brazilian scientists finished mapping the arabica coffee genome with the aim of raising the tree's resistance to disease and harsh weather and improving quality, a research leader said on Tuesday.</p> <p>A coffee genome is made up of 11 chromosomes which are packed with genes and form a blueprint for the beverage's taste, texture, flavor and other qualities.</p> <p>During the past two years, scientists from Brazil, the world's biggest coffee grower and exporter, produced 200,000 genetic sequences from which 35,000 genes were identified. Many of the genes recur in roots, branches and leaves of coffee trees.</p> <p>"The object is to improve coffee quality and yields by protecting trees from disease and weather," project coordinator Alan Carvalho Andrade of the government's Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) told Reuters.</p> <p>"We can now start with coffee institutions, the functional phase which is about how to use the data bank on the 35,000 genes to improve coffee quality," he added.</p> <p>Andrade said it was uncertain how long it would take to start commercial production of improved coffee varieties.</p> <p>Researchers have estimated that cost savings of between 50 and 100 percent could be made on herbicides, pesticides and other crop chemicals, and that<span> </span><br /> productivity could be raised by between 30 and 50 percent.</p> <p>Sao Paulo's research foundation (Fapesp) helped coordinate the coffee genome project which cost 6 million reais (US$2.05 million) and was funded by the National Coffee Development Fund (Funcafe).</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:55:13 +0000 Anonymous 51 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu New Sugar Beets Sweet for Birds (Jan 2003) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/new-sugar-beets-sweet-birds-jan-2003 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">New Sugar Beets Sweet for Birds (Jan 2003)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/41/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="New sugar beets developed with the help of modern biotechnology are more benign to wild birds than their conventional relatives, according to British researchers. The scientists studied the impact of the introduction of genetically modified sugar beets on the bird population. They found that the herbicide-tolerant sugar beets, which require less frequent spraying against weeds, allowed the nesting of wild birds that are generally not found in conventional fields. While the trial included a comparatively small parcel of land, the researchers are optimistic that similar results could be achieved in larger field trials. The results were published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.  Royal Society: http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/ "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "New sugar beets developed with the help of modern biotechnology are more benign to wild birds than their conventional relatives, according to British researchers. The scientists studied the impact of the introduction of genetically modified sugar beets on the bird population. They found that the herbicide-tolerant sugar beets, which require less frequent spraying against weeds, allowed the nesting of wild birds that are generally not found in conventional fields." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>New sugar beets developed with the help of modern biotechnology are more benign to wild birds than their conventional relatives, according to British researchers. The scientists studied the impact of the introduction of genetically modified sugar beets on the bird population. They found that the herbicide-tolerant sugar beets, which require less frequent spraying against weeds, allowed the nesting of wild birds that are generally not found in conventional fields. While the trial included a comparatively small parcel of land, the researchers are optimistic that similar results could be achieved in larger field trials. The results were published in the<span> </span><em>Proceedings of the Royal Society.</em> </p> <p>Royal Society:<span> </span><a href="http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/">http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/</a></p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:52:19 +0000 Anonymous 46 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu EPA document explains agency's confidence in Bt crops (Jul 2000) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/epa-document-explains-agencys-confidence-bt-crops <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">EPA document explains agency&#039;s confidence in Bt crops (Jul 2000)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/41/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="A 107-page document prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gives a detailed explanation of how insect-protected crops are regulated and assessed for safety. The document was prepared in response to a petition by activist groups, which had challenged EPA on the safety of crops that contain an insect-resistant gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) a common soil bacterium. Bt cotton, corn and potatoes have been developed through biotechnology to provide in-plant protection against targeted harmful insects. In a concise statement of EPAís confidence in the environmental safety of Bt crops, the document states: &quot;EPA is aware of no data indicating that unreasonable adverse effects on the environment have occurred during the period that Bt crops have been registered and used (since 1995)ÖMoreover, EPA has no reason to believe that such effects may occur during the continued duration of the current registrations.&quot; In the response to the petition, EPA explains why the agency is confident that Bt crops will not cross-pollinate with weeds or other plants in the environment; have an adverse effect on non-target beneficial organisms; have unintended effects on soil ecology; cause pests to become resistant to Bt, which organic farmers use in spray form. The report details clearly that EPA fully considered possible long-term effects of in-plant insect protection and did not overlook any of the issues raised by the petitioners. The report also shows that EPA has reviewed extensive data, including some published studies that raise issues about the safety of Bt crops. EPA explains that the preponderance of data demonstrate the safety of Bt crops. The report points out that laboratory studies that raise concerns among some groups have not been validated by field studies, which show that Bt crops provide a beneficial effect. The document also explains that EPA considered the risks and benefits of Bt crops in comparison with existing agricultural practices, including chemical insecticide use, which is being significantly reduced as farmers adopt Bt technology. The document, dated April 20, 2000, is officially titled &quot;Response of the Environmental Protection Agency to Petition for rulemaking and collateral relief concerning the registration and use of genetically engineered plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins.&quot; The full report is available on the EPA website: www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/news/news-greenpeace.htm The following are significant points quoted from the report: Pollen transfer to wild plants is not likely. &quot;EPA has assessed each of the Bt plant pesticide registrations for likelihood of transgene movement to weedy relatives. EPA believes that in almost all cases, the likelihood of occurrence of such movement is almost non-existent because compatible weedy relatives of Bt crops either do not occur in the United States or are isolated from areas of commercial production. Where compatible weedy relatives do exist in isolated geographic pockets, EPA has imposed stringent sale and distribution restrictions to prevent even the possibility of transgene movement to weedy relatives.&quot; Protection for non-target insects. &quot;EPA assesses the toxicity ofÖBtÖto potentially exposed non-target organisms by single species laboratory testing. If toxicity to a particular species is observed, the amount of exposure is quantified and a risk assessment is performed to determine if adverse effects would be expected at the concentrations used under field conditions...Detrimental effects to an individual species observed only under laboratory conditions does not constitute a sufficient basis to declare such species at riskÖEPA believes that evidence supports a conclusion that non-target beneficial organisms are maintained or enhanced in fields where Bt plant-pesticides are usedÖDensities of predatory and non-target insects are generally higher on Bt crops that non-Bt crops solely because Bt crops are not subjected to spraying with nonspecific pesticidesÖEPA believes that available scientific data and information indicates that cultivation of Bt crops has a positive ecological effect, when compared to the most likely alternatives.&quot; Bt crops reduce the use of chemical insecticides. &quot;Under normal circumstances, Bt crops require substantially fewer applications of chemical pesticides. This should result in fewer adverse impacts to non-target organisms because application of nonspecific conventional chemical pesticides is known to have an adverse effect on populations of non-target beneficial organismsÖThere is actual data demonstrating that cultivation of these crops has led to decreases in the amount of synthetic chemical insecticides applied.&quot; Decomposing Bt crops are not a threat to soil organisms. EPA says the assertion that Bt in crop residue could cause harm to soil organisms &quot;is speculative based on limited laboratory studies which are not applicable to actual field conditions. Soils are the natural habitat of all Bt species (Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium); therefore Bt is already naturally present during the crop growing seasonÖandÖconstantly available for ingestion by all soil invertebrates.&quot; EPA also addressed a study, which petitioners claimed had demonstrated that Bt binds to soil. EPA pointed out that the study showed Bt binding to clay only when the soil had low pH levels (4.9-5.1), which means that in actual agricultural settings, the soil would not be acidic enough to facilitate binding. In order for farmers to grow crops, &quot;Agricultural soils are limed when necessary to be at a pH range of 5.8-7.3ÖTo date, there are no reports of any detrimental effects on the soil ecosystems from the use of Bt crops.&quot; Programs are in place to protect against insect resistance. The paper explains that Bt crops deliver a consistent, high dose to eliminate most target pests. It also explains how EPA has mandated the planting of refuges (areas of non-Bt crops) to ensure a supply of susceptible insects to mate with any rare resistant insects that survive exposure to Bt so their offspring would be susceptible. &quot;The high dose/structured refuge strategy has been widely endorsed by the scientific communityÖEPA believes it is significant that, after four years of full-scale commercialization of Bt crops, with approximately 17 million total acres of Bt corn, Bt potato and Bt cotton planted in 1998, EPA has received no confirmed evidence that field resistance to any Bt endotoxin expressed in these crops has occurred in any insect species.&quot; Insects are more likely to develop resistance from foliar sprays. EPA points out that foliar sprays used by organic growers do not deliver a consistent high dose. &quot;EPA believes that it has been demonstrated that the best way to reduce the selection pressure of foliar Bt sprays is to minimize their use as much as possible. Unique to plants expressing Bt, however, is the ability to produce season-long expression at relatively high dosesÖMoreover, Bt spraysÖmay pose an even greater selection pressure on the target pest than the relatively high levels of Bt toxins produced in Bt plants.&quot; "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "A 107-page document prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gives a detailed explanation of how insect-protected crops are regulated and assessed for safety. The document was prepared in response to a petition by activist groups, which had challenged EPA on the safety of crops that contain an insect-resistant gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) a common soil bacterium. Bt cotton, corn and potatoes have been developed through biotechnology to provide in-plant protection against targeted harmful insects." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>A 107-page document prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gives a detailed explanation of how insect-protected crops are regulated and assessed for safety. The document was prepared in response to a petition by activist groups, which had challenged EPA on the safety of crops that contain an insect-resistant gene from<span> </span><em>Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)</em><span> </span>a common soil bacterium.<span> </span><em>Bt<span> </span></em>cotton, corn and potatoes have been developed through biotechnology to provide in-plant protection against targeted harmful insects.</p> <p>In a concise statement of EPAís confidence in the environmental safety of Bt crops, the document states:</p> <p>"EPA is aware of no data indicating that unreasonable adverse effects on the environment have occurred during the period that Bt crops have been registered and used (since 1995)ÖMoreover, EPA has no reason to believe that such effects may occur during the continued duration of the current registrations."</p> <p>In the response to the petition, EPA explains why the agency is confident that Bt crops will not</p> <div> <ul><li>cross-pollinate with weeds or other plants in the environment;</li> <li>have an adverse effect on non-target beneficial organisms;</li> <li>have unintended effects on soil ecology;</li> <li>cause pests to become resistant to Bt, which organic farmers use in spray form.</li> </ul></div> <p>The report details clearly that EPA fully considered possible long-term effects of in-plant insect protection and did not overlook any of the issues raised by the petitioners. The report also shows that EPA has reviewed extensive data, including some published studies that raise issues about the safety of Bt crops. EPA explains that the preponderance of data demonstrate the safety of Bt crops. The report points out that laboratory studies that raise concerns among some groups have not been validated by field studies, which show that Bt crops provide a beneficial effect.</p> <p>The document also explains that EPA considered the risks and benefits of Bt crops in comparison with existing agricultural practices, including chemical insecticide use, which is being significantly reduced as farmers adopt Bt technology.</p> <p>The document, dated April 20, 2000, is officially titled "Response of the Environmental Protection Agency to<span> </span>Petition for rulemaking and collateral relief concerning the registration and use of genetically engineered plants expressing<span> </span><em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em><span> </span>endotoxins." The full report is available on the EPA website:<span> </span><a href="http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/news/news-greenpeace.htm">www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/news/news-greenpeace.htm</a></p> <p>The following are significant points quoted from the report:</p> <div> <ul><li><strong>Pollen transfer to wild plants is not likely.<span> </span></strong>"EPA has assessed each of the Bt plant pesticide registrations for likelihood of transgene movement to weedy relatives. EPA believes that in almost all cases, the likelihood of occurrence of such movement is almost non-existent because compatible weedy relatives of Bt crops either do not occur in the United States or are isolated from areas of commercial production. Where compatible weedy relatives do exist in isolated geographic pockets, EPA has imposed stringent sale and distribution restrictions to prevent even the possibility of transgene movement to weedy relatives."</li> <li><strong>Protection for non-target insects.<span> </span></strong>"EPA assesses the toxicity ofÖBtÖto potentially exposed non-target organisms by single species laboratory testing. If toxicity to a particular species is observed, the amount of exposure is quantified and a risk assessment is performed to determine if adverse effects would be expected at the concentrations used under field conditions...Detrimental effects to an individual species observed only under laboratory conditions does not constitute a sufficient basis to declare such species at riskÖEPA believes that evidence supports a conclusion that non-target beneficial organisms are maintained or enhanced in fields where Bt plant-pesticides are usedÖDensities of predatory and non-target insects are generally higher on Bt crops that non-Bt crops solely because Bt crops are not subjected to spraying with nonspecific pesticidesÖEPA believes that available scientific data and information indicates that cultivation of Bt crops has a positive ecological effect, when compared to the most likely alternatives."</li> <li><strong>Bt crops reduce the use of chemical insecticides.</strong><span> </span>"Under normal circumstances, Bt crops require substantially fewer applications of chemical pesticides. This should result in fewer adverse impacts to non-target organisms because application of nonspecific conventional chemical pesticides is known to have an adverse effect on populations of non-target beneficial organismsÖThere is actual data demonstrating that cultivation of these crops has led to decreases in the amount of synthetic chemical insecticides applied."</li> <li><strong>Decomposing Bt crops are not a threat to soil organisms.</strong><span> </span>EPA says the assertion that Bt in crop residue could cause harm to soil organisms "is speculative based on limited laboratory studies which are not applicable to actual field conditions. Soils are the natural habitat of all Bt species (<em>Bacillus thuringiensis</em><span> </span>is a soil bacterium); therefore Bt is already naturally present during the crop growing seasonÖandÖconstantly available for ingestion by all soil invertebrates." EPA also addressed a study, which petitioners claimed had demonstrated that Bt binds to soil. EPA pointed out that the study showed Bt binding to clay only when the soil had low pH levels (4.9-5.1), which means that in actual agricultural settings, the soil would not be acidic enough to facilitate binding. In order for farmers to grow crops, "Agricultural soils are limed when necessary to be at a pH range of 5.8-7.3ÖTo date, there are no reports of any detrimental effects on the soil ecosystems from the use of Bt crops."</li> <li><strong>Programs are in place to protect against insect resistance.</strong><span> </span>The paper explains that Bt crops deliver a consistent, high dose to eliminate most target pests. It also explains how EPA has mandated the planting of refuges (areas of non-Bt crops) to ensure a supply of susceptible insects to mate with any rare resistant insects that survive exposure to Bt so their offspring would be susceptible. "The high dose/structured refuge strategy has been widely endorsed by the scientific communityÖEPA believes it is significant that, after four years of full-scale commercialization of Bt crops, with approximately 17 million total acres of Bt corn, Bt potato and Bt cotton planted in 1998, EPA has received no confirmed evidence that field resistance to any Bt endotoxin expressed in these crops has occurred in any insect species."</li> <li><strong>Insects are more likely to develop resistance from foliar sprays.</strong><span> </span>EPA points out that foliar sprays used by organic growers do not deliver a consistent high dose. "EPA believes that it has been demonstrated that the best way to reduce the selection pressure of foliar Bt sprays is to minimize their use as much as possible. Unique to plants expressing Bt, however, is the ability to produce season-long expression at relatively high dosesÖMoreover, Bt spraysÖmay pose an even greater selection pressure on the target pest than the relatively high levels of Bt toxins produced in Bt plants."</li> </ul></div> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:49:12 +0000 Anonymous 41 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Understanding A Worm's Genetic Code May Improve Human Health (Feb 1999) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/understanding-worms-genetic-code-may-improve-human-health <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Understanding A Worm&#039;s Genetic Code May Improve Human Health (Feb 1999)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology.rss" addthis:title="Biotechnology" addthis:description="Scientists have identified and placed in exact order all of the 97 million genetic code that spell out the instructions for making a tiny, soil-dwelling worm, providing the first complete genetic blueprint of any animal and promising new insight into human development and disease. Caenorhabditis elegans,a one millimeter long shiny translucent roundworm lives in soil and eats bacteria. It would take 25 of them lined up from end to end to measure one inch long. C. elegans only has 20,000 genes and 97 million DNA units. In contrast, humans have 80,000 genes and 3 billion DNA units. Laboratory study and scientists have focused on this tiny worm because it has most of the basic characteristics of complex animals yet is simple enough to understand. Worms, like humans, have a nervous system, eats, grows, engages in sex, ages and dies. After almost a decade of work, British and American researchers have for the first time constructed a step-by-step guide showing how to grow a nervous system, reproductive system, digestive tract and other body parts, work. Scientist know every step of the wormsí development from embryo to an adult creature that has 959 cells. They know all of the 302 neurons that compose the wormís nervous system and the exact spot where each neuron branches out and connects to every other. They also know an enormous amount about the wormís basic biology and behavior, including how it responds to touch, temperature and odor. With all of the wormís 19,900 genes precisely mapped and spelled out on the creatureís six pairs of chromosomes, at last researchers have a fully described living system that can be used as a model for understanding other organisms, including humans. So far 70 percent of the thousands of human genes identified can be found in identical or similar genes in the worm- indicating that nature tends to use and reuse whatever materials that work. Scientists state that these similarities mean that worm genes will vastly improve understanding of human embryo development, aging, and innumerable ailments such as Alzheimerís disease and cancer. Harold Varmus, director of the National Institutes of Health, which funded the work stated, &quot;The unveiling of this genome gives us the first real picture of what itís like to be a multicellular, complex organism such as ourselves.&quot; Until now, only simple organisms have had their genetic codes completely spelled out, including a few viruses, bacteria and a single-celled yeast. The gene sequencing work was led by Robert Waterston of Washington University in St. Louis and John Sulston of the Sanger Centre in Cambridge, England. Adapted from The Sacramento Bee. 1998. December 11. Pages A1, A26. Scientists untangle wormís genetic code. Rick Weiss, Washington Post. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Scientists have identified and placed in exact order all of the 97 million genetic code that spell out the instructions for making a tiny, soil-dwelling worm, providing the first complete genetic blueprint of any animal and promising new insight into human development and disease." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Scientists have identified and placed in exact order all of the 97 million genetic code that spell out the instructions for making a tiny, soil-dwelling worm, providing the first complete genetic blueprint of any animal and promising new insight into human development and disease.</p> <p><em>Caenorhabditis elegans,</em>a one millimeter long shiny translucent roundworm lives in soil and eats bacteria. It would take 25 of them lined up from end to end to measure one inch long. C. elegans only has 20,000 genes and 97 million DNA units. In contrast, humans have 80,000 genes and 3 billion DNA units. Laboratory study and scientists have focused on this tiny worm because it has most of the basic characteristics of complex animals yet is simple enough to understand.</p> <p>Worms, like humans, have a nervous system, eats, grows, engages in sex, ages and dies. After almost a decade of work, British and American researchers have for the first time constructed a step-by-step guide showing how to grow a nervous system, reproductive system, digestive tract and other body parts, work.</p> <p>Scientist know every step of the wormsí development from embryo to an adult creature that has 959 cells. They know all of the 302 neurons that compose the wormís nervous system and the exact spot where each neuron branches out and connects to every other. They also know an enormous amount about the wormís basic biology and behavior, including how it responds to touch, temperature and odor. With all of the wormís 19,900 genes precisely mapped and spelled out on the creatureís six pairs of chromosomes, at last researchers have a fully described living system that can be used as a model for understanding other organisms, including humans.</p> <p>So far 70 percent of the thousands of human genes identified can be found in identical or similar genes in the worm- indicating that nature tends to use and reuse whatever materials that work. Scientists state that these similarities mean that worm genes will vastly improve understanding of human embryo development, aging, and innumerable ailments such as Alzheimerís disease and cancer.</p> <p>Harold Varmus, director of the National Institutes of Health, which funded the work stated, "The unveiling of this genome gives us the first real picture of what itís like to be a multicellular, complex organism such as ourselves." Until now, only simple organisms have had their genetic codes completely spelled out, including a few viruses, bacteria and a single-celled yeast.</p> <p>The gene sequencing work was led by Robert Waterston of Washington University in St. Louis and John Sulston of the Sanger Centre in Cambridge, England.</p> <p>Adapted from The Sacramento Bee. 1998. December 11. Pages A1, A26.<span> </span>Scientists untangle wormís genetic code.<span> </span>Rick Weiss, Washington Post.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:47:42 +0000 Anonymous 36 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu U.S. Farmers Are Rapidly Adopting Biotech Crops (Jan 1999) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/us-farmers-are-rapidly-adopting-biotech-crops <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">U.S. Farmers Are Rapidly Adopting Biotech Crops (Jan 1999)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-primary-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/styles/sf_landscape_16x9/public/images/article/industrial.gif?h=d736f6ed&amp;itok=P-pJLMKv" width="1280" height="720" alt="Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares)" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-sf-landscape-16x9" /> </div> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/41/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="Within the last few years farming of genetically modified crop varieties has dramatically increased in U.S. agriculture among crops such as corn, soybeans and cotton. Farmers have responded positively to this new technology. Since their commercial introduction only three years ago, acreage has soared to 50 million acres. These new crops feature resistance to pests and the ability to tolerate herbicides. The increased farming of these crops have been encouraged by the potential cost savings, including reductions in input use. Development The development of agricultural biotechnology has occurred in two stages. In the first stage, genetic modifications have included input traits such as pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, providing advantages to farmers in the production phase without changing the final product. The input traits of the first stages in genetically modified crops may increase farmers&#039; net profits through savings in production costs, reducing chemical use, increased flexibility in crops planted, and in some cases, increased crop yield. The second stage of genetic modification will focus on output traits such as improved nutritional features and processing characteristics. Currently Genetically modified crops currently on the market are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and USDA&#039;s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and are a result of very sizable investments, largely by private sector firms. Although the technology is generally available through many seed companies, farmers pay a premium price for the genetically modified seed. However, the genetically modified crops that are currently available have little or no impact on the prices the farmers pay. This is because these GM crops are basically no different from the conventional crops. With the development and the inclusion of output traits, crops will be significantly enhanced for the end-user having prominent effects on pricing and marketing. Major Crops Major new pest-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops include oilseeds, corn and cotton. In 1996, the first year of commercial production, farmers harvested 1 million acres of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans. By 1997, as seed became available in most producing regions, about 9 million acres were grown. U.S. farmers are expected to harvest more than 20 million acres this year, about 30 percent of total soybean acreage. In the year 2000 more than half of the soybean acreage could be planted to varieties with this gene. This technology is being enthusiastically implemented by world producers such as Argentina and Canada. Other oilseeds such as sunflowers, canola , and flax are also being genetically altered for herbicide tolerance. Although the seed is higher in cost, the cost is reportedly offset by a reduction in the input costs. Resistance Bt corn is designed to resist damage from the European corn borer (ECB), a major insect pest in the Corn Belt. The impact of this insect is not always seen until the damage has occurred because the borer tunnels inside the stalk. While Bt corn is resistant to specific groups of insects such as the corn borer, it has not been shown to have a direct effect on beneficial insects. Bt corn was first approved for sale in 1996. Sources from industry indicate that Bt corn could be planted on 15-18 million acres in 1998 (about 20 percent of U.S. corn acreage), up from less than 5 million acres in 1997. Results have been generally positive. Where infestation of borer insects were very heavy, yields of Bt corn in some areas were dramatically higher than non-Bt corn. The next major pest control feature will target rootworm. This technology will be introduced in the next 2 or 3 years, and market prospects look promising. Also in the works is development of disease resistant crops. Herbicide-tolerant corn is on the market now, including varieties that tolerate popular herbicides based on glyphosate, glufosinate ammonium, and on imidazolinone. In 1998, seed herbicides is available for more than 7 million acres of imidazolinone corn, over 6 million acres of glufosinate ammonium corn, and 900,000 acres of glyphosate corn. Farmers have a more complicated response to herbicide-tolerant corn than for insect-resistant crops like Bt corn. Weed problems are more varied depending on both geography and time of year. The effectiveness of herbicide-tolerant corn will vary by region and by management practices. Genetically modified cotton is also now available with herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant traits. In 1996, a genetically engineered cotton called Bollgard became available to commercial farmers. A 1996 survey by Monsanto revealed that 80 percent of producers were satisfied with Bollgard cotton. The survey reported that U.S. growers using Bt varieties achieved a modest yield increase over non-Bt cotton and that there was a decline in the use of insecticides. Although overall insecticide use is expected to decline with Bt crops factors such as insect levels, seed varieties, weather, and other environmental conditions will continue to effect the performance of any genetically modified crop. For instance, in 1996 some Texas producers using Bt cotton where there was an unusually high insect infestation claimed losses of 18,000 acres due to cotton bollworm damage. As producers are beginning to understand, Bt cotton does not eliminate all necessary pest management practices and continued monitoring of insect activity is necessary. Genetically modified cotton composed 13 percent of U.S. cotton acreage in 1996, about 1.9 million acres in 1997, about 25 percent of U.S. cotton acreage, approximately 3.4 million acres. Plans for the future are to develop additional tolerances of insects, diseases, and nematodes, and to incorporate genes designed to improve yield, harvestability, and drought and salt tolerance of cotton. Besides cost savings incentive to adopt any new technology is convenience. Pest-resistant crops can reduce management tasks while growers can simplify their herbicide use and often reduce the number of herbicide applications. So far, most of the new technology introduced has not been aimed specifically at increasing crop yields. However, some of the new corn products will effectively boost yields by decreasing losses to weeds or pests. Impact of Use Benefits of genetically modified crops will vary from year to year and over different locations depending on environmental factors. The environmental benefits of herbicide-tolerant crops derive from the reduction in the number of chemical applications, reduction in energy use due to fewer passes across the fields, and reduction in the need for tillage. Runoff of chemicals into groundwater could be minimized and no-till operations can reduce the erosion of top-soil. Concerns Concerns about insects have created a strong incentive for Bt seed selling companies to install certain production practices as part of a insect resistance management program. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a two-part pest management plan. First, the developing company must ensure that the Bt strains carry enough toxin to kill most feeding insects so that they cannot mate. Second, the developing companies must ensure that farmers plant nearby areas to a non-Bt variety to provide a refuge for survival of nonresistant insects. Companies are also prepared to tap different strains and versions of Bt to offer new generations of product. Growers also fear that weed species which are more susceptible to Bt crops will decline while stronger species of weeds build up eliminating the effectiveness of the crop. Further monitoring and research are needed over time to adequately address concerns about weed and insect resistance. Because agricultural biotechnology is so new, assessments of its effectiveness, cost and labor savings, yield advantages, and ecological impacts are limited. Source: Agricultural Outlook. Aug. 1998. Riley, P.A., L. Hoffman, M. Ash. Economic Research Service. p21-24 Global Review of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2000 Introduction Global population exceeded 6 Billion in 2000 and is expected to reach approximately 9 Billion by 2050. During the last five years, 1996 to 2000, global adoption rates for transgenic crops are unprecedented and reflect grower satisfaction with the products that offer significant benefits ranging from more convenient and flexible crop management, higher productivity or net returns per hectare and a safer environment through decreased use of conventional pesticides, which collectively contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Figure 1. Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares).Up to 85% of global transgenic crops have been grown in industrial countries, however the proportion of transgenic crops grown in developing countries has increased. Figure 2. Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares).Biotech modified soybean is the dominant crop world wide, occupying 58% of the global area of transgenic crops in 2000. Transgenic corn area in 2000 is estimated to have decreased globally with the major decreases in the USA and in Canada. Some observers have indentified the principle cause of the decrease in transgenic corn in the US in 2000 to lower plantings of BT corn by farmers who conclude low infestation of European Corn Borer in 1999. Figure 3. Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, by Trait (million hectares).During the five-year period, 1996-2000, herbicide tolerance has consistently been the dominant trait with insect resistance being second. Source: Global Review of Commericalized Transgenic Crops: 2000. by Clive James, Chair, ISAAA Board of Directors "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Within the last few years farming of genetically modified crop varieties has dramatically increased in U.S. agriculture among crops such as corn, soybeans and cotton. Farmers have responded positively to this new technology. Since their commercial introduction only three years ago, acreage has soared to 50 million acres. These new crops feature resistance to pests and the ability to tolerate herbicides. The increased farming of these crops have been encouraged by the potential cost savings, including reductions in input use." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Within the last few years farming of genetically modified crop varieties has dramatically increased in U.S. agriculture among crops such as corn, soybeans and cotton. Farmers have responded positively to this new technology. Since their commercial introduction only three years ago, acreage has soared to 50 million acres. These new crops feature resistance to pests and the ability to tolerate herbicides. The increased farming of these crops have been encouraged by the potential cost savings, including reductions in input use.</p> <h4>Development</h4> <p>The development of agricultural biotechnology has occurred in two stages. In the first stage, genetic modifications have included input traits such as pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, providing advantages to farmers in the production phase without changing the final product. The input traits of the first stages in genetically modified crops may increase farmers' net profits through savings in production costs, reducing chemical use, increased flexibility in crops planted, and in some cases, increased crop yield. The second stage of genetic modification will focus on output traits such as improved nutritional features and processing characteristics.</p> <h4>Currently</h4> <p>Genetically modified crops currently on the market are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and are a result of very sizable investments, largely by private sector firms. Although the technology is generally available through many seed companies, farmers pay a premium price for the genetically modified seed. However, the genetically modified crops that are currently available have little or no impact on the prices the farmers pay. This is because these GM crops are basically no different from the conventional crops. With the development and the inclusion of output traits, crops will be significantly enhanced for the end-user having prominent effects on pricing and marketing.</p> <h4>Major Crops</h4> <p>Major new pest-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops include oilseeds, corn and cotton. In 1996, the first year of commercial production, farmers harvested 1 million acres of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans. By 1997, as seed became available in most producing regions, about 9 million acres were grown. U.S. farmers are expected to harvest more than 20 million acres this year, about 30 percent of total soybean acreage. In the year 2000 more than half of the soybean acreage could be planted to varieties with this gene. This technology is being enthusiastically implemented by world producers such as Argentina and Canada. Other oilseeds such as sunflowers, canola , and flax are also being genetically altered for herbicide tolerance. Although the seed is higher in cost, the cost is reportedly offset by a reduction in the input costs.</p> <h4>Resistance</h4> <p>Bt corn is designed to resist damage from the European corn borer (ECB), a major insect pest in the Corn Belt. The impact of this insect is not always seen until the damage has occurred because the borer tunnels inside the stalk. While Bt corn is resistant to specific groups of insects such as the corn borer, it has not been shown to have a direct effect on beneficial insects. Bt corn was first approved for sale in 1996. Sources from industry indicate that Bt corn could be planted on 15-18 million acres in 1998 (about 20 percent of U.S. corn acreage), up from less than 5 million acres in 1997. Results have been generally positive. Where infestation of borer insects were very heavy, yields of Bt corn in some areas were dramatically higher than non-Bt corn. The next major pest control feature will target rootworm. This technology will be introduced in the next 2 or 3 years, and market prospects look promising. Also in the works is development of disease resistant crops.</p> <p>Herbicide-tolerant corn is on the market now, including varieties that tolerate popular herbicides based on glyphosate, glufosinate ammonium, and on imidazolinone. In 1998, seed herbicides is available for more than 7 million acres of imidazolinone corn, over 6 million acres of glufosinate ammonium corn, and 900,000 acres of glyphosate corn. Farmers have a more complicated response to herbicide-tolerant corn than for insect-resistant crops like Bt corn. Weed problems are more varied depending on both geography and time of year. The effectiveness of herbicide-tolerant corn will vary by region and by management practices.</p> <p>Genetically modified cotton is also now available with herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant traits. In 1996, a genetically engineered cotton called Bollgard became available to commercial farmers. A 1996 survey by Monsanto revealed that 80 percent of producers were satisfied with Bollgard cotton. The survey reported that U.S. growers using Bt varieties achieved a modest yield increase over non-Bt cotton and that there was a decline in the use of insecticides. Although overall insecticide use is expected to decline with Bt crops factors such as insect levels, seed varieties, weather, and other environmental conditions will continue to effect the performance of any genetically modified crop. For instance, in 1996 some Texas producers using Bt cotton where there was an unusually high insect infestation claimed losses of 18,000 acres due to cotton bollworm damage. As producers are beginning to understand, Bt cotton does not eliminate all necessary pest management practices and continued monitoring of insect activity is necessary.</p> <p>Genetically modified cotton composed 13 percent of U.S. cotton acreage in 1996, about 1.9 million acres in 1997, about 25 percent of U.S. cotton acreage, approximately 3.4 million acres. Plans for the future are to develop additional tolerances of insects, diseases, and nematodes, and to incorporate genes designed to improve yield, harvestability, and drought and salt tolerance of cotton. Besides cost savings incentive to adopt any new technology is convenience. Pest-resistant crops can reduce management tasks while growers can simplify their herbicide use and often reduce the number of herbicide applications. So far, most of the new technology introduced has not been aimed specifically at increasing crop yields. However, some of the new corn products will effectively boost yields by decreasing losses to weeds or pests.</p> <h4>Impact of Use</h4> <p>Benefits of genetically modified crops will vary from year to year and over different locations depending on environmental factors. The environmental benefits of herbicide-tolerant crops derive from the reduction in the number of chemical applications, reduction in energy use due to fewer passes across the fields, and reduction in the need for tillage. Runoff of chemicals into groundwater could be minimized and no-till operations can reduce the erosion of top-soil.</p> <h4>Concerns</h4> <p>Concerns about insects have created a strong incentive for Bt seed selling companies to install certain production practices as part of a insect resistance management program. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a two-part pest management plan. First, the developing company must ensure that the Bt strains carry enough toxin to kill most feeding insects so that they cannot mate. Second, the developing companies must ensure that farmers plant nearby areas to a non-Bt variety to provide a refuge for survival of nonresistant insects. Companies are also prepared to tap different strains and versions of Bt to offer new generations of product. Growers also fear that weed species which are more susceptible to Bt crops will decline while stronger species of weeds build up eliminating the effectiveness of the crop. Further monitoring and research are needed over time to adequately address concerns about weed and insect resistance. Because agricultural biotechnology is so new, assessments of its effectiveness, cost and labor savings, yield advantages, and ecological impacts are limited.</p> <p>Source: Agricultural Outlook. Aug. 1998. Riley, P.A., L. Hoffman, M. Ash. Economic Research Service. p21-24</p> <h3>Global Review of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2000</h3> <h4>Introduction</h4> <p>Global population exceeded 6 Billion in 2000 and is expected to reach approximately 9 Billion by 2050. During the last five years, 1996 to 2000, global adoption rates for transgenic crops are unprecedented and reflect grower satisfaction with the products that offer significant benefits ranging from more convenient and flexible crop management, higher productivity or net returns per hectare and a safer environment through decreased use of conventional pesticides, which collectively contribute to a more sustainable agriculture.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-center"><img alt="Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares)." data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="67790eb8-fb8d-48cf-8513-9c9c01abaa2d" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/industrial.gif" /><figcaption>Figure 1. Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares).</figcaption></figure><p>Up to 85% of global transgenic crops have been grown in industrial countries, however the proportion of transgenic crops grown in developing countries has increased.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-center"><img alt="Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares)." data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d1c2a10e-34c6-494b-bfab-4a9b180bcea8" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/oil.gif" /><figcaption>Figure 2. Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, (million hectares).</figcaption></figure><p>Biotech modified soybean is the dominant crop world wide, occupying 58% of the global area of transgenic crops in 2000. Transgenic corn area in 2000 is estimated to have decreased globally with the major decreases in the USA and in Canada. Some observers have indentified the principle cause of the decrease in transgenic corn in the US in 2000 to lower plantings of BT corn by farmers who conclude low infestation of European Corn Borer in 1999.</p> <figure role="group" class="caption caption-img align-center"><img alt="Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, by Trait (million hectares)." data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="af8309c5-cf96-445e-b1a6-f2b1a92eb94d" src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/inline-images/resist_tol.gif" /><figcaption>Figure 3. Global area of transgenic crops, 1996 to 2000, by Trait (million hectares).</figcaption></figure><p>During the five-year period, 1996-2000, herbicide tolerance has consistently been the dominant trait with insect resistance being second.</p> <p>Source: Global Review of Commericalized Transgenic Crops: 2000. by Clive James, Chair, ISAAA Board of Directors</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:41:18 +0000 Anonymous 31 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu Genetically Altered Tomato Could Combat Cancer (Jul 1998) https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/genetically-altered-tomato-could-combat-cancer <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Genetically Altered Tomato Could Combat Cancer (Jul 1998)</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/41/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="European scientists have bred a vitamin-rich tomato they hope can eventually help prevent heart disease and cancer. The tomato has increased levels of carotenoids, nutrients important to ealth. It has about four times the normal levels of beta-carotene, which the body uses to make vitamin A, and twice the levels of lycopene, the compound that helps make tomatoes red. &quot;The reason for that is there are a number of reports that lycopene reduces the risks of some cancers,&quot; said Peter Bramley, a professor of biochemistry at the Royal Holloway Hospital at Egham, UK. &quot;Therefore, the dea is if we can increase the amount of lycopene in the diet through tomatoes his can reduce the incidence of these cancers,&quot; Bramley, who coordinated the European Union-funded study, said. Bramley&#039;s group used Agrobacterium to deliver a new gene into the plant. What we have done is to take the gene that encodes the enzyme to produce lycopene and we have introduced that into the tomato so it only works in the ripening fruit,&quot; he said. Other teams in Spain and Germany are attempting the same research with peppers. Bramley has eaten his transgenic tomatoes. &quot;They don&#039;t taste any different,&quot; he said. &quot;They are quite normal. Bramley noted that the genes inserted into the tomatoes and peppers were genes for substances already eaten by people, so he safety implications were different. He said work was being done in other labs to create rice rich in beta-carotene and lycopene for growing in countries where naturally vitamin-rich vegetables are scarce. Beta-carotene and ycopene are antioxidants, counteracting the effects of free radicals, which can amage cells, leading to cancer, heart disease and other harmful effects. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "European scientists have bred a vitamin-rich tomato they hope can eventually help prevent heart disease and cancer." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>European scientists have bred a vitamin-rich tomato they hope can eventually help prevent heart disease and cancer.</p> <p>The tomato has increased levels of carotenoids, nutrients important to ealth. It has about four times the normal levels of beta-carotene, which the body uses to make vitamin A, and twice the levels of lycopene, the compound that helps make tomatoes red. "The reason for that is there are a number of reports that lycopene reduces the risks of some cancers," said Peter Bramley, a professor of biochemistry at the Royal Holloway Hospital at Egham, UK. "Therefore, the dea is if we can increase the amount of lycopene in the diet through tomatoes his can reduce the incidence of these cancers," Bramley, who coordinated the European Union-funded study, said.</p> <p>Bramley's group used Agrobacterium to deliver a new gene into the plant. What we have done is to take the gene that encodes the enzyme to produce lycopene and we have introduced that into the tomato so it only works in the ripening fruit," he said. Other teams in Spain and Germany are attempting the same research with peppers.</p> <p>Bramley has eaten his transgenic tomatoes. "They don't taste any different," he said. "They are quite normal. Bramley noted that the genes inserted into the tomatoes and peppers were genes for substances already eaten by people, so he safety implications were different. He said work was being done in other labs to create rice rich in beta-carotene and lycopene for growing in countries where naturally vitamin-rich vegetables are scarce. Beta-carotene and ycopene are antioxidants, counteracting the effects of free radicals, which can amage cells, leading to cancer, heart disease and other harmful effects.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:39:53 +0000 Anonymous 26 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu StarLink Corn: What Happened https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/starlink-corn-what-happened <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">StarLink Corn: What Happened</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"> <span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype=""> (not verified)</span> </span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">June 28, 2017</span> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-primary-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img src="/sites/g/files/dgvnsk1126/files/styles/sf_landscape_16x9/public/images/article/corn_0.jpg?h=b7abf074&amp;itok=ejgLg9EM" width="1280" height="720" alt="Corn" typeof="foaf:Image" class="image-style-sf-landscape-16x9" /> </div> <div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style addthis_32x32_style" addthis:url="https://ccr.ucdavis.edu/biotechnology/41/feed" addthis:title="" addthis:description="Humans and animals have consumed corn for centuries. Corn is one of the worldís most commonly eaten foods. It is no wonder the Aventis Cropscience genetically modified a corn to be resistant to pests. Aventis Scientists incorporated Cry9C, a protein isolated from a common soil bacteria; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sp. Tolworthi, into StarLink corn. The Cry9C protein is effective against caterpillars because it binds to different sites of the insect gut and destroys the stomach cells. This protein has no effect on other living creatures. StarLink corn was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for animal feed but not for human food until additional testing was completed. The controversy began when traces of DNA from StarLink corn were found in taco shells and other corn related products. Although there are several varieties of Bt corns in the market, StarLink was illegal in human food. It was only approved for animal feed. The EPA Scientific Advisory panel considered the protein Cry9C a medium risk potential human allergen. This decision was based upon limited data. The protein was slow to digest, suggesting a possible concern, however the proteinís amino acid sequence was not similar to known allergens therefore the likelihood of allergencity is low. Furthermore, for people to become allergic to a protein they need to be exposed to it multiple times over an extended period of time. Since the Cry9C protein is only a small fraction of corn protein, the probability that the protein would sensitize an individual is low. The FDA received approximately 34 reports of adverse reaction to corn products which may contain StarLink. Of the 34 reports, 20 were very unlikely a result of an allergenic reaction. The U.S. Center investigated 7 people who experienced symptoms that are consistent with an allergenic reaction. The people showed no reaction to the Cry9C protein. This does not mean people could not develop an allergic reaction in the future. Aventis submitted a new evaluation of the corn to EPA and requested a temporary approval for human consumption. The new information demonstrated the consumption of corn based foods that contain StarLink would expose consumers to Cry9C many times smaller than needed to cause sensitivity. Subsequently, Aventis voluntarily withdrew registration for StarLink corn. It will no longer be grown. As a result of this episode, the Aventis Company and others in the biotechnology industry will seek approvals for both human and animal consumption before marketing genetically enhanced seeds. For more information on biotechnology visit www.whybiotech.com and www.ift.org. "> <a class="addthis_button_facebook"></a> <a class="addthis_button_linkedin"></a> <script> var addthis_share = { templates: { twitter: "Humans and animals have consumed corn for centuries. Corn is one of the worldís most commonly eaten foods. It is no wonder the Aventis Cropscience genetically modified a corn to be resistant to pests." } } </script> <a class="addthis_button_twitter"></a> <a class="addthis_button_email"></a> <a class="addthis_button_compact"></a> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Humans and animals have consumed corn for centuries. Corn is one of the worldís most commonly eaten foods. It is no wonder the Aventis Cropscience genetically modified a corn to be resistant to pests.</p> <p>Aventis Scientists incorporated Cry9C, a protein isolated from a common soil bacteria;<span> </span><em>Bacillus thuringiensis<span> </span></em>(Bt) sp.<span> </span><em>Tolworthi</em>, into StarLink corn. The Cry9C protein is effective against caterpillars because it binds to different sites of the insect gut and destroys the stomach cells. This protein has no effect on other living creatures. StarLink corn was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for animal feed but not for human food until additional testing was completed.</p> <p>The controversy began when traces of DNA from StarLink corn were found in taco shells and other corn related products. Although there are several varieties of Bt corns in the market, StarLink was illegal in human food. It was only approved for animal feed. The EPA Scientific Advisory panel considered the protein Cry9C a medium risk potential human allergen. This decision was based upon limited data. The protein was slow to digest, suggesting a possible concern, however the proteinís amino acid sequence was not similar to known allergens therefore the likelihood of allergencity is low. Furthermore, for people to become allergic to a protein they need to be exposed to it multiple times over an extended period of time. Since the Cry9C protein is only a small fraction of corn protein, the probability that the protein would sensitize an individual is low.</p> <p>The FDA received approximately 34 reports of adverse reaction to corn products which may contain StarLink. Of the 34 reports, 20 were very unlikely a result of an allergenic reaction. The U.S. Center investigated 7 people who experienced symptoms that are consistent with an allergenic reaction. The people showed no reaction to the Cry9C protein. This does not mean people could not develop an allergic reaction in the future.</p> <p>Aventis submitted a new evaluation of the corn to EPA and requested a temporary approval for human consumption. The new information demonstrated the consumption of corn based foods that contain StarLink would expose consumers to Cry9C many times smaller than needed to cause sensitivity. Subsequently, Aventis voluntarily withdrew registration for StarLink corn. It will no longer be grown.</p> <p>As a result of this episode, the Aventis Company and others in the biotechnology industry will seek approvals for<span> </span><em>both</em><span> </span>human and animal consumption before marketing genetically enhanced seeds.</p> <p>For more information on biotechnology visit<span> </span><strong><a href="http://www.whybiotech.com/">www.whybiotech.com</a></strong><span> </span>and<span> </span><strong><a href="http://www.ift.org/">www.ift.org</a></strong>.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-sf-article-category field--type-entity-reference field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Category</div> <div class="field__item"><a href="/articles/what-s-new-biotechnology" hreflang="en">What &#039;s New in Biotechnology?</a></div> </div> Wed, 28 Jun 2017 17:33:56 +0000 Anonymous 21 at https://ccr.ucdavis.edu